Australian-American writer, director, and producer Colin Higgins (1941-1988) is best known for his screenplay of the cult classic Harold and Maude and for directing the more mainstream comedies Foul Play and 9 to 5.
|Lesbian and Bisexual Female Poetry before Stonewall|
|Even though no canonical list of pre-Stonewall Lesbian Poetry exists, a significant number of women wrote and read a wide range of poems that expressed their sensibilities as woman-loving women.|
|Natalie Clifford Barney (1876-1972), an American expatriate known as the Amazon, was the muse and inspiration of other writers and a poet, memoirist, and epigrammatist in her own right.|
|American poet, literary scholar, and educator, Katharine Lee Bates (1859-1929) is best known for her poem "America the Beautiful" and for her relationship with Wellesley College colleague Katharine Coman.|
|Aphra Behn (ca 1640-1689), an English writer known to her contemporaries as a "scandal" for her writings and her flamboyant personal life, was one of the most influential dramatists of the late seventeenth century. Today, she is better known as a poet and novelist with a fascinating biography.|
|Elizabeth Bishop (1911-1979), who is widely acknowledged as one of the finest twentieth-century American poets, encoded a lesbian identity in her poems.|
|Emily Dickinson (1830-1886), a reclusive American poet more appreciated after her death than before, wrote poems and letters to her sister-in-law Susan that are both passionate and elusive in their homoeroticism.|
|Hilda Doolittle (1886-1961), a bisexual poet and novelist who published under the initials H. D., wrote poems and autobiographical prose works that celebrate women's romantic relationships with each other.|
|Katherine Bradley (1846-1914) and Edith Cooper (1862-1913), writing as Michael Field, collaborated on a number of plays and eight volumes of verse, many of which had lesbian contents.|
|Elsa Gidlow (1898-1986), known to many as the "poet-warrior," was unabashedly visible as an independent woman, a lesbian, a writer, and a bohemian-anarchist at a time when such visibility was both unusual and potentially dangerous.|
|Angelina Weld Grimké (1880-1958) was the first African American to have a play staged. In addition to that historic achievement, her poetry regularly appeared in journals, newspapers, and anthologies during the era now known as the Harlem Renaissance, though she faded into near obscurity after the 1920s.|
|Although Radclyffe Hall (1880-1943) is best known as the author of The Well of Loneliness, arguably the most famous lesbian novel ever written, she also wrote five volumes of poetry.|
|Amy Lowell (1874-1925) was a poet, translator, essayist, literary biographer, and public speaker. Her poetry is extremely frank, forthrightly sensual, and often overtly lesbian.|
|Charlotte Mew (1869-1928), an English poet, does not explicitly mention her lesbianism but encodes the emotional pain of hiding her sexuality in complex dramatic monologues on themes of loss and isolation.|
|Edna St. Vincent Millay (1892-1950), an American poet and playwright, expressed her bisexuality in both her life and her work. She achieved fame early on in life as the pretty, petite "It Girl" of poetry, but was criticized for turning to social politics and activism starting in the 1930s.|
|Gabriela Mistral (1889-1957) was a Chilean educator, journalist, feminist, diplomat, and Nobel laureate who celebrated women and motherhood in poems and essays that are frequently homoerotic.|
|Sophia Parnok (1885-1933) was Russia's only openly lesbian poet during her lifetime. The lyrics in her first book of verse, Poems (1916), presented the first, revolutionarily nondecadent, lesbian desiring subject ever to be heard in a book of Russian poetry.|
|Geneviève Pastre (b. 1924), one of France's leading lesbian theorists and political activists, was a respected French poet and academic in her fifties when she came out as a lesbian and made radical lesbian feminism the root of her political and literary work.|
|Katherine Philips (1632-1664) was called "The Matchless Orinda" and considered "The English Sappho" of her day. Two-thirds of her poems concern erotic relationships among women.|
|Adrienne Rich (1929-2012) has aestheticized politics and politicized aesthetics and is America's most widely read lesbian poet. Her work has won both fans and many critical accolades including the National Book Award.|
|Christina Rossetti (1830-1894) was such a devout Anglo-Catholic that one doctor diagnosed her with "religious mania." Though her piety repressed her sexuality, she wrote poetry that included vividly erotic female-to-female affection.|
|Muriel Rukeyser (1913-1980) wrote poetry that broke the silence of many aspects of female experience such as sex, menstruation, breast-feeding, mother-daughter relationships, and female aging. Her work has been enormously important to many feminist and lesbian readers.|
|Vita Sackville-West (1892-1962) was a prolific author of poetry, fiction, and nonfiction, though she is best known for her relationship with Virginia Woolf and for her scandalous love affairs.|
|Sappho (ca 630? B.C.E.), an ancient Greek poet born on the Isle of Lesbos, has been admired through the ages as one of the greatest lyric poets. Today, she is esteemed by lesbians around the world as the archetypal lesbian and their symbolic mother.|
|May Sarton (1912-1996), the author of more than forty books, gradually revealed her lesbianism in her writing. Sarton worked successfully in poetry, the novel, essays, and the journal.|
|Anna Seward (1742-1809) was one of the best known English women poets of her time. She had several romantic friendships with women and celebrated the Ladies of Llangollen in verse.|
|Edith Sitwell (1887-1964) was a poet and novelist who surrounded herself with gay men, some of whom became her artistic collaborators. Although it is not clear that she ever experienced a sustained sexual relationship with anyone of either sex, her closest emotional bond was with another woman.|
|Gertrude Stein (1874-1946), in addition to becoming--with Alice B. Toklas--half of an iconic lesbian couple, was an important innovator and transformer of the English language.|
|May Swenson (1913-1989), one of America's most inventive and incisive poets, wrote many love poems celebrating lesbian sexuality.|
|Sara Teasdale (1884-1933) reflected in her poetry the reality that the strongest emotional relationships in her life were with women.|
|Maria Tsvetaeva (1892-1941) is widely considered one of the four greatest twentieth-century Russian poets. She described herself as bisexual, but the lesbian theme found throughout her poetry, prose, letters, and journals has been ignored or minimized by Western biographers and concealed by Russian scholars.|
|Renée Vivien (1877-1909), who had many affairs with women, openly celebrated lesboerotic love in her poetry and dreamed of women-controlled spaces in an era when most women were still domestically confined.|
|Sylvia Townsend Warner (1893-1978), a poet, novelist, and short story writer, is an important lesbian voice of the earlier twentieth century.|
AVIATION PIONEER, 1873
FEMINIST ARTIST WHO CHALLENGES THE DISTINCTION BETWEEN ART AND CRAFT, 1939
AMERICAN ACTIVIST AND POLITICIAN, 1950
NOTED AMERICAN WRITER WHOSE FICTION INCLUDED NEGATIVE AND ABUSIVE PORTRAYALS OF GAY MEN, 1899
A POET AND SUCCESSOR TO WALT WHITMAN WHO WAS TORTURED BY HOMOSEXUAL SELF-HATRED, 1899
CONSIDERED THE WORLD'S GREATEST DISC JOCKEY, 1954
A DECADENT WRITER WHO CELEBRATED EROTICIZED MALE FRIENDSHIPS, 1860
ONE OF THE INDIGO GIRLS FOLK/POP DUET, 1963
SUCCESSFUL SINGER AND SONGWRITER NOTED FOR WITTY LYRICS AND RICH MELODIES, 1973
ACTRESS WHO USED HER FAME AND FORTUNE TO CHAMPION THE WORK OF OTHER WOMEN, 1816
AMERICAN INTELLECTUAL AND PHOTOGRAPHER OF THE MALE NUDE, 1864
PIONEER AND ICON OF THE GLBTQ COMMUNITY IN DETROIT, 1899
PROFESSOR, TATTOO ARTIST, AND AUTHOR OF GAY MALE EROTICA, 1909
SCREENWRITER, NOVELIST, BIOGRAPHER, AND OBSERVER OF THE HOLLYWOOD SCENE, 1924
AMERICAN CREATOR OF FICTIONAL WORLDS IN WHICH LESBIANISM IS A FLUCTUATING FORCE, 1944
PROLIFIC, OFTEN CAMPY, ENGLISH WRITER, 1867
LESBIAN WHO WAGED A SUCCESSFUL BATTLE TO GAIN CUSTODY OF HER DISABLED LOVER, 1947
IDIOSYNCRATIC INDEPENDENT FILMMAKER WHO TREATS HOMOSEXUALITY MATTER-OF-FACTLY, 1952
PRIVATE INVESTIGATOR AND AWARD-WINNING AUTHOR OF MYSTERY NOVELS, 1962
AMERICAN PAINTER WITH A HOMOPHILE SENSIBILITY, 1844
NEW YORK CITY COUNCIL PRESIDENT AND ACTIVIST, 1966
This feature lists people about whom glbtq.com has both entries and complete birth dates. Each person listed has made a significant contribution to or had a significant impact on glbtq culture or history. Most are gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgender, though some are either heterosexual or cannot be adequately characterized using any of these labels.
On July 21, 2014, President Obama signed an executive order banning workplace discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity by federal contractors. He also amended the existing executive order banning discrimination by the federal government on the basis of sexual orientation and other characteristics to include protections for gender identity.
On July 18, 2014, the United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit ruled that Oklahoma's ban on same-sex marriage is unconstitutional. In a long and complex decision focusing on arcane issues of standing and the question of animus, the Denver-based court ruled 2-1 that Oklahoma's ban violates the Constitution's guarantee of equal protection. The same three-judge panel also ruled 2-1 on June 25 that Utah's ban on same-sex marriage was unconstitutional.
On July 17, 2014, Monroe County Judge Luis Garcia struck down Florida's ban on same-sex marriage. In a case brought by a Key West couple, Aaron Huntsman and William Lee Jones, who sued when they were denied a marriage license by the Clerk of Court of Monroe County, Judge Garcia ruled that Florida's ban on same-sex marriage violated the equal protection and due process protections of the United States Constitution. He said that marriage is a fundamental right that belongs to the individual and that includes the right to marry a person of one's own sex.
Congratulations to Michael Sam on receiving the Arthur Ashe Courage Award at the 2014 ESPY Awards, held at the Nokia Theater in Los Angeles, on July 14. After a moving video, Sam, the first openly gay player drafted by the NFL, was presented the award by Dwayne Johnson and then, fighting back tears, delivered an emotional acceptance speech.
On July 15, 2014, before the All-Star Game in Minneapolis, Major League Baseball announced that it has appointed former Dodger outfielder Billy Bean an Ambassador for Inclusion and that it is posthumously honoring former Dodger Glenn Burke as a gay pioneer.
In an interview on Australian television to be broadcast on July 13, Ian Thorpe, one of the greatest swimmers in history, reveals that he is gay. Thorpe, who dominated the 2000 Summer Olympics by winning 3 gold and 2 silver medals, broke 22 world records and won 5 Olympic gold medals before he retired from swimming at the age of 24. After years of adamantly denying rumors that he was gay, in the interview he discusses the pain he has experienced in coming to terms with his sexuality while also battling depression.
On July 9, 2014, state district Judge C. Scott Crabtree forcefully declared Colorado's ban on same-sex marriages unconstitutional. Finding that the state's voter-approved ban "bears no rational relationship to any conceivable government interest," Judge Crabtree ruled that the ban violates the due process and equal protection guarantees of the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. He then issued a stay of the decision pending an appeal to the state Supreme Court by Colorado Attorney General John Suthers. In another Colorado case, another judge ruled that Boulder County Clerk Hillary Hall may continue to issue marriage licenses to same-sex couples. After that ruling was handing down on July 10, Clerks in Denver and Pueblo Counties also began issuing licenses to gay and lesbian couples.
On July 8, a number of leading glbtq advocacy organizations announced that they were withdrawing their support for the Employment Non-Discrimination Act (ENDA), which passed the U.S. Senate in 2013, but which has been languishing in the House since then. The National Gay and Lesbian Task Force, the nation's oldest glbtq civil rights organization, which has been campaigning for the passage of ENDA for more than two decades, announced that it could no longer support the current version of the bill. Soon after NGLTF's announcement, six other advocacy groups, including the American Civil Liberties Union, Lambda Legal, Gay & Lesbian Advocates & Defenders, and Pride at Work, also withdrew their support for ENDA.
On June 7, 2014, California Governor Jerry Brown signed into law a bill that conforms the language of the state's marriage laws to the reality of marriage equality, which returned to California on June 28, 2013, soon after the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that the proponents of Proposition 8 lacked standing to appeal. That ruling meant that Judge Vaughn Walker's 2010 decision declaring Proposition 8 unconstitutional would prevail.