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Gösta Adrian-Nilsson
Regarding his sexuality as a fundamental component of his creativity, Swedish painter Gösta Adrian-Nilsson (1884-1965), known as GAN, fostered the development of modernist art in his native country.
 
 
Darren Star
Responsible for such pop culture touchstones as Beverly Hills, 90210, Melrose Place, and Sex and the City, writer-director-producer Darren Star (b. 1961) has had a prolific career in television.
 
 
Lilli Vincenz Lilli Vincenz
Veteran activist Lilli Vincenz (b. 1937), who commenced her activism before Stonewall, also collected thousands of documents about the movement for glbtq rights; donated to the Library Congress, they provide scholars an invaluable resource.
 
 
Spotlight Romantic Friendship
 
  Romantic friendship, an intimate and sometimes sexual relationship between same-sex friends, has long been a part of Western culture and is often celebrated in its literature.

Before the advent of the twentieth century, Female Romantic Friendships were largely perceived as normal and socially acceptable. Male Romantic Friendships have not been as widely accepted, but literary works from ancient epics and Elegies and Pastorals to modern war movies and Westerns celebrate intimate relationships between men.

 
 
 
  Jane Addams Jane Addams (1860-1935) was an American reformer, social worker, peace activist, and Nobel Laureate remembered as the founder of Hull House in Chicago. She had at least two long-term same-sex relationships that can be characterized as romantic friendships.  
 
 
  Aelred of Rievaulx Aelred of Rievaulx (ca. 1110-1167) was an English abbot who developed a typology of friendship that separated spiritual, utilitarian, and carnal relationships with a particular emphasis on avoiding carnality. He cultivated "spiritual" friendships with young monks at his abby, though his relationship with the beautiful young monk Simon bears all the hallmarks of romantic friendship.  
 
 
  Susan B. Anthony Susan B. Anthony (1820-1906) is best known for her crusade for women's suffrage, but she spoke out on a broad range of feminist issues including temperance, property and custody rights, divorce laws, and educational and employment opportunities for women. Anthony enjoyed romantic friendships with Elizabeth Cady Stanton and other women.  
 
 
  Boston Marriages--romantic unions between women that were usually monogamous but not necessarily sexual--flourished in the late nineteenth century. The term was coined in New England, around the time that numerous women's colleges such as Vassar, Smith, and Wellesley emerged.  
 
 
  The Ladies of Llangollen Lady Eleanor Butler (1739-1829) and Sarah Ponsonby (1755-1831), known as the Ladies of Llangollen, are an enduring emblem of female romantic friendship.  
 
 
  Lord George Gordon Byron George Gordon, Lord Byron (1788-1824) was a poet and major celebrity known for a libertine lifestyle and risqué poetry in the England of his day. The bisexual writer pursued romantic friendships with young men throughout his brief life.  
 
 
  Rachel Carson Rachel Carson (1907-1964) was a marine biologist who helped found the environmental movement with her 1962 book Silent Spring. Carson enjoyed an eleven-year romantic relationship with Dorothy Freeman, a married woman.  
 
 
  Willa Cather Willa Cather (1873-1947) was one of America's premier literary artists in the earlier twentieth century. She reflected her own lesbianism in the creation of strong women characters and in the exploration of male homosexuality. For nearly forty years, Cather shared her life with Edith Lewis.  
 
 
  Marie Corelli Marie Corelli (1855-1924) was a popular English novelist now known chiefly as a camp figure who inspired E. F. Benson's Lucia, a character on whom he based several novels. From 1876 until her death, Corelli lived with Bertha Vyver, who served as housekeeper, nurse, confidant, and intimate friend.  
 
 
  Charlotte Cushman Charlotte Cushman (1816-1876) was one of the most famous actresses of her day, enjoying success on the stage in both the United States and Britain. Cushman, who had a series of sometimes tempestuous intimate relationships with several women, lived in a committed relationship with sculptor Emma Stebbins from 1857 until Cushman's death.  
 
 
  Emily Dickinson Emily Dickinson (1830-1886) wrote several poems and letters that expressed the sentiments of romantic friendship and hint at homoeroticism. Much of her romantic ardor appears to have been directed toward Susan Gilbert Dickinson, her sister-in-law.  
 
 
  Marie Dorval Marie Dorval (1798-1849) was a popular nineteenth-century French actress who enjoyed an intense romantic friendship with the writer George Sand that fueled much speculation among Parisian gossips of the time, as well as among later biographers and historians.  
 
 
  Dutch Friendship Glasses Dutch Friendship Glasses were made on order to celebrate friendship in the eighteenth century, an era when sodomy was often punished with brutal public executions in the Dutch Republic. The glasses may also have covertly celebrated same-sex sexual desire.  
 
 
  Mary Eleanor Wilkins Freeman Mary Eleanor Wilkins Freeman (1852-1930) wrote many short stories characterized by passionate devotion between women. "Two Friends" and "The Long Arm," two of the most important lesbian nineteenth-century lesbian stories, illustrate the climate of the time and place in which life-long partnerships between women were lived with community acceptance and support.  
 
 
  Harriet Hosmer Harriet Hosmer (1830-1908), an American sculptor, was among a handful of successful women artists in the nineteenth century. She frequently scandalized the polite society of her day by her mannish dress and adventurous behavior. Her most intense relationship was with Louisa Ashburton, a Scottish noblewoman.  
 
 
  Henry James Henry James (1843-1916), the famous American-born nineteenth-century novelist and playwright, had a number of romantic and possibly sexual relationships with young men. His passion for other men imbues his fiction; and his novel The Bostonians explores a Boston Marriage.  
 
 
  Sarah Orne Jewett Sarah Orne Jewett (1849-1909) is a major figure in the literature of female romantic friendship and a prolific writer who produced fifteen novels for adults as well as several books for children. She experienced romantic friendship first-hand in her own Boston Marriage, which lasted from the early 1880s until her death.  
 
 
  Frances Alice Kellor Frances Kellor (1873-1952) was a progressive activist and intellectual who is today best known for having led the Americanization movement that greeted the Ellis Island generation of immigrants from 1906 to 1921. She maintained a Boston Marriage with fellow activist Mary Dreir that lasted 47 years.  
 
 
  Herman Melville Herman Melville (1819-1891), the author of Moby Dick (1851), expressed his homosexuality in male-male romantic relationships that occur frequently in his stories. Melville often used intimate male friendship as part of his broader critique of American imperialism.  
 
 
  John Milton John Milton (1608-1674), perhaps the greatest poet in the English language, wrote several poems that suggest that he had a relatively enlightened view of same-sex intimacy. His intense friendship with his boyhood friend Charles Diodati could be described as a romantic friendship.  
 
 
  Florence Nightingale Florence Nightingale (1820-1910) is famous as the mother of modern nursing. She was a tough reformer who fought for her right to a career and an individual identity in the stifling atmosphere of Victorian England. Nightingale, who sometimes referred to herself as "a man of action," enjoyed the company of powerful men and was probably celibate, but she also had several important passionate friendships with women.  
 
 
  Plato Plato (427-327 B. C. E.), the ancient Greek philosopher, created many works that celebrate male-male love. Male romantic friendship is the subject of The Symposium and The Phaedrus.  
 
 
  Cecil Rhodes Cecil Rhodes (1853-1902) was one of nineteenth-century Britain's most ambitious imperialists. Throughout his adult life, he conducted romantic friendships with younger male associates.  
 
 
  Eleanor Roosevelt Eleanor Roosevelt (1884-1962) was an important advocate for the poor and oppressed and one of the most influential women in the world. She had strong attachments to women throughout her life. Some probably included sexual intimacy.  
 
 
  George Sand George Sand (Amantine-Aurore-Lucile Dupin, 1804-1876) is as infamous for her cigar-in-hand cross-dressing as she is famous for her eighty novels, twenty plays, and numerous political tracts. Her sapphic love for Marie Dorval, a famous Parisian actress and lover of Alfred de Vigny, seemed to go unnoticed amidst her many affairs with men.  
 
 
  Sarah Scott (1723-1795) was an eighteenth-century English novelist who challenged the sex-gender system of her society and claimed narrative authority for women loving women. In her personal life, including her long-term romantic friendship with Lady Mary Lumley, Scott found an alternative to the ruthlessly limited possibilities available to women in the eighteenth century.  
 
 
  William Shakespeare William Shakespeare (1564-1616) included closely bonded female pairs and intimate male-male relationships in many plays and in The Sonnets.  
 
 
  Emma Stebbins Emma Stebbins (1815-1882) is remembered for sculpture produced in a ten-year period between 1859 and 1869. While studying sculpture in Rome, she met and fell in love with actress Charlotte Cushman with whom she lived from 1857 until Cushman's death in 1876.  
 
 
  Alfred Lord Tennyson Alfred Lord Tennyson (1809-1892), who was Poet Laureate during much of the reign of Queen Victoria, wrote In Memoriam, the most beautiful homoerotic elegy in the English language, which meditates on his romantic friendship with Arthur Hallam.  
 
 
  M. Carey Thomas M. Carey Thomas (1857-1935) was one of the most prominent American educators of the early twentieth century. Thomas shared her home with Mamie Gwinn while serving as the second president of the women-only Bryn Mawr College in Pennsylvania, a relationship that lasted until Gwinn married in 1904.  
 
 
  Virgil Virgil (70-19 B. C. E.) was a Roman poet and writer who wrote approvingly of male-male love in many of his works. The Aeneid offers the ancient world's most poignant account of male romantic friendship in the story of Nisus and Euryalus.  
 
 
  Lillian Wald Lillian Wald (1867-1940), an American public health nurse and social reformer, is the model of a Victorian-era lesbian active in the Settlement House Movement. Though Wald drew almost all of her support from close female friends and used the language of romantic friendship when corresponding with many, she is not known to have established a long-term romantic attachment to any single woman.  
 
 
  Evelyn Waugh Evelyn Waugh (1903-1966), a major twentieth-century English author, treated homosexuality paradoxically, depicting some of his homosexual characters sympathetically and subjecting others to homophobic abuse. The most memorable romantic friendship in his work is that between Sebastian Flyte and Charles Ryder in Brideshead Revisited.  
 
 
  Walt Whitman Walt Whitman (1819-1892) was an American poet who celebrated an ideal of manly love in both its spiritual and physical aspects. He figured male romantic friendship as the basis for a revitalized American democracy.  
 
 
  Anne Whitney Anne Whitney (1821-1915) was a Boston sculptor who, as a woman in a male-dominated field, struggled for equality, chose subjects--abolitionists, feminists, and blacks--that reflected her liberal political and social beliefs. She is said to have lived in a Boston Marriage with painter Abby Adeline Manning.  
 
 
notable birthdays this week
April 13
 
Frank Murphy Frank Murphy
JUSTICE OF THE UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT, 1890
Nella Larsen Nella Larsen
BISEXUAL AFRICAN-AMERICAN NOVELIST WHO TREATED LESBIANISM COVERTLY, 1891
 
Lanford Wilson Lanford Wilson
PLAYWRIGHT AND A POWERFUL VOICE SPEAKING OF THE LIVES OF GAY MEN TODAY, 1937
Deborah A. Batts
THE FIRST OPENLY GAY U.S. FEDERAL JUDGE, 1947
 
April 14
 
Sir John Gielgud Sir John Gielgud
ONE OF THE GREATEST 20TH-CENTURY BRITISH ACTORS, 1904
Don Roos
SCREENWRITER AND DIRECTOR WHOSE FILMS OFTEN FEATURE GAY AND LESBIAN CHARACTERS, 1955
 
April 15
 
 Leonardo da Vinci Leonardo da Vinci
QUINTESSENTIAL RENAISSANCE MAN, 1452
Benjamin Jowett Benjamin Jowett
CLASSICAL SCHOLAR REMEMBERED FOR BOWDLERIZING PLATO, 1817
 
Henry James Henry James
FAMED AMERICAN WRITER WHOSE SEXUALITY HAS COME UNDER RECENT SCRUTINY, 1843
Bessie Smith Bessie Smith
"EMPRESS OF THE BLUES" WHOSE HISTORY IS FILLED WITH COLORFUL LEGENDS, 1894
 
George Platt Lynes George Platt Lynes
PHOTOGRAPHER WHOSE GREATEST WORK MAY HAVE BEEN HIS DANCE IMAGES AND MALE NUDES, 1907
Howard Brown
PHYSICIAN AND FOUNDER OF THE NATIONAL GAY TASK FORCE, 1924
 
Craig Zadan
PROLIFIC FILM, TELEVISION, AND STAGE PRODUCER, 1949
 
April 16
 
Merce Cunningham
INFLUENTIAL 20TH CENTURY DANCER AND CHOREOGRAPHER, 1919
Dusty Springfield Dusty Springfield
THE MOST POPULAR FEMALE BRITISH ROCK STAR OF THE 1960s, 1939
 
Essex Hemphill
ACCLAIMED CONTEMPORARY GAY AFRICAN-AMERICAN POET, 1957
 
April 17
 
C.P. Cavafy C.P. Cavafy
ONE OF THE GREATEST POETS TO HAVE WRITTEN IN MODERN GREEK, 1863
Thornton Wilder Thornton Wilder
PULITZER PRIZE-WINNING AMERICAN PLAYWRIGHT AND NOVELIST, 1897
 
Lindsay Anderson
A FOUNDATIONAL FIGURE IN THE BRITISH "FREE CINEMA" MOVEMENT, 1923
 
April 19
 
Chavela Vargas
"COSTA RICAN-MEXICAN" SINGER AND PERFORMER WHO OPENLY EXPRESSES LESBIAN DESIRE, 1919
Dick Sargent
ACTOR MOST WIDELY REMEMBERED AS "THE SECOND DARRIN" ON THE TELEVISION SITCOM BEWITCHED, 1930
 
About Notable Birthdays
This feature lists people about whom glbtq.com has both entries and complete birth dates. Each person listed has made a significant contribution to or had a significant impact on glbtq culture or history. Most are gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgender, though some are either heterosexual or cannot be adequately characterized using any of these labels.
 
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On April 17, 2014, the same three-judge panel of the Tenth Circuit Court of Appeals that heard the Utah marriage equality case a week ago convened in Denver to hear the Oklahoma marriage equality case. As they had in the Utah case, the panel, consisting of Judges Carlos Lucero, Jerome A. Holmes, and Paul J. Kelly Jr., again appeared divided in sympathy as they considered the case of Bishop v. Smith.

Charles Cooper at a Proposition 8 press conference.

A forthcoming book about the legal battle over Proposition 8, the amendment that banned same-sex marriage in California from November 5, 2008 until June 28, 2013, reveals that Charles Cooper, the attorney who defended the measure, learned that his step-daughter is gay as the case wound through the appellate process. Moreover, Cooper is now helping plan his step-daughter's Massachusetts wedding to a woman in June.

One of several stamps honoring Tom of Finland. Courtesy Itella.

On April 13, 2014, Itella, the Finnish postal service, announced that in September it will issue a series of stamps featuring the art of Tom of Finland, who created some of the most indelible--and erotic--images of twentieth-century gay life and fueled the fantasies of innumerable gay men. Touko Laaksonen (1920-1991), an advertising illustrator, adopted the soubriquet Tom of Finland as a pseudonym in 1956 when he began submitting erotic drawings to the American bodybuilding magazine, Physique Pictorial.

Kimberly and Amber Leary are among the parents whose families are affected.

The attempt by the Attorney General of Utah to block the adoptions of children by married same-sex couples is gratuitous cruelty and gives the lie to his claim in arguments before the Tenth Circuit that Utah's ban on the recognition of same-sex marriage has nothing to do with animus.

A supporter of same-sex marriage.

On April 10, 2014, a three-judge panel of the Tenth Circuit Court of Appeals convened in Denver to hear arguments in the case of Kitchen v. Herbert, the challenge to Utah's ban on same-sex marriage. Although questions posed during the oral argument of an appellate case are not necessarily a good indicator of how individual judges will ultimately vote, the judges appeared to be sharply divided in sympathy. Most observers of the hearing predicted that the panel is likely to rule in favor of marriage equality on a 2-1 split, with Judges Carlos Lucero and Jerome A. Holmes ruling in favor of the plaintiffs and Judge Paul J. Kelly Jr. deciding in favor of the defendants.

Derrick Gordon.

Congratulations to University of Massachusetts guard Derrick Gordon on becoming the first Division I NCAA college basketball player to come out while still playing. Gordon, a 6'3" sophomore who started for all 33 UMass games this year, came out to his teammates on April 2, 2014. The news was revealed on April 9 by Outsports.com and ESPN.

"Wilbert Hines" (1977) by George Dureau. Image courtesy Higher Pictures.

New Orleans artist George Dureau died on April 7, 2014 as a result of complications from Alzheimer's disease. Best known for his male figure studies and narrative paintings in oil and charcoal and for his black-and-white photographs, which often feature street youths, dwarfs, and amputees, Dureau was notably versatile and worked in a number of media.

On April 7, 2014, the United States Supreme Court announced that it has declined to review Elane Photography v. Willock, a challenge to New Mexico's Human Rights Act, which prohibits discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation in public accommodations. The case was brought by a photography business after they were successfully sued for refusing to photograph a same-sex commitment ceremony.

Judge Black.

On April 4, 2014, Judge Timothy Black announced that he will issue a ruling within 10 days declaring Ohio's ban on recognition of same-sex marriages unconstitutional. Judge Timothy Black made the announcement at the conclusion of a hearing in a lawsuit brought by three married lesbian couples expecting to give birth soon and a gay male couple seeking to adopt.

Congratulations to Iowa on five years of marriage equality. In a unanimous ruling announced on April 3, 2009, the Iowa Supreme Court struck down the Iowa law banning same-sex marriage on equal protection grounds. Although the decision in Varnum v. Brien cost three Supreme Court justices their seats on the bench, their courage has been vindicated both by subsequent legal developments and by increased acceptance of marriage equality in the state.

 
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