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  Pride Month Recommended Reading  
 
Social Sciences >> Holidays and Observances  
 
 
  Social Sciences >> Parades and Marches  
 
 
Social Sciences >> Stonewall Riots  
 
 
  Slideshows >> Symbols  
 
 
Point of View
 
An Appreciation of Ensan Case's Wingmen
In a far-ranging analysis, Eric Patterson explains why Ensan Case's Wingmen is both the best American war novel about love between men and also an astute exploration of masculinity. Although published in 1979, and set in World War II, the novel remains relevant because of its artistry and its social and psychological insights.
 
 
Point of View
 
Ensan Case A Letter from Ensan Case
In a letter prompted by Eric Patterson's essay on his novel Wingmen, Ensan Case reveals the genesis and publication history of a cult classic.
 
 
Spotlight Gay Male Art in America: 1900-1969
 
  Most Gay Male American Artists Before Stonewall were closeted, but they were inventive in creating codes for those in the know. After 1945, some adventurous artists developed independent networks for the distribution of works of gay art.  
 
 
  African-American and African Diaspora Art African-American and African Diaspora Artists have recently begun to explore issues specific to gender and sexuality. Often relying on self-portraiture, they address homophobia and racism as well as desire and longing.  
 
 
  Don Bachardy Don Bachardy (b. 1934) is an artist who garnered considerable public attention as the long-time companion of famed novelist Christopher Isherwood. He has also achieved renown in his own right for his nudes and celebrity portraits.  
 
 
  James Richmond Barthe James Richmond Barthé (1901-1989) was a popular African-American sculptor associated with the Harlem Renaissance. He used his art as a means of working out internal conflicts related to race and sexuality.  
 
 
  Crawford Barton Crawford Barton (1943-1993) captured the blossoming of an openly gay culture in San Francisco in photographs he created during the 1960s and 1970s.  
 
 
  Forrest Bess (1911-1977) was a mystic and artist who sought to fuse male and female in his life and work. In small, but boldly painted, abstract pieces, Bess represented his visions, which, he believed, contained the secret of immortality.  
 
 
  Paul Cadmus Paul Cadmus (1904-1999) is best known for the satiric innocence of his frequently censored paintings of burly men in skin-tight clothes and curvaceous women in provocative poses, but he also created works that celebrate same-sex domesticity.  
 
 
  Henry Darger Now considered one of the most original and important artists of the last half of the twentieth century, Henry Darger (1892-1973) died completely unknown in his native Chicago.  
 
 
  F. Holland Day Fred Holland Day (1864-1933) was an American intellectual, publisher, and aesthete who belonged to a small international group of early gay photographers of the male nude.  
 
 
  Beauford Delaney Beauford Delaney (1901-1979) was a gay African-American modernist painter whose portraits of black cultural leaders are considered classics. The pressures of being black and gay in a racist and homophobic society may have ultimately robbed him of his sanity.  
 
 
  Charles Demuth Charles Demuth (1883-1935) was one of America's first modernist painters. He was also one of the earliest artists in the United States to expose his gay identity through forthright, positive depictions of homosexual desire.  
 
 
  Portrait by George Dureau George Dureau (1930-2014) was a New Orleans artist best known for his male figure studies and narrative paintings in oil and charcoal and for his black-and-white photographs, which often feature street youths, dwarfs, and amputees. Click here to view slides of Dureau's work.  
 
 
  Jared French (1905-1988) was a painter who was dissatisfied with merely describing the material world. Instead, he devised a pictorial language to explore human unconsciousness and its relation to sexuality.  
 
 
  The Harlem Renaissance The Harlem Renaissance, an African-American literary movement of the 1920s and 1930s, included several important gay and lesbian writers and influenced a number of visual artists.  
 
 
  Marsden Hartley Marsden Hartley (1877-1943), one of the central figures in the evolution of modern American art, created works that help define the delicate balance between the erotic and the poetic.  
 
 
  David Hockney David Hockney (b. 1937) is one of the liveliest and most versatile visual artists of his generation. He has helped break down resistance to the erotic gaze directed at the male body and also presented gay male couples in domestic--rather than sensational or sexual--images.  
 
 
  Horst Horst P. Horst (1906-1999) was a German-born American photographer who created some of the most memorable images of the mid-twentieth century.  
 
 
  Delmas Howe Delmas Howe (b. 1935) is a prominent American artist who seeks to visualize gay history by linking the past with the present in intensely homoerotic, deceptively naturalistic paintings.  
 
 
  Peter Hujar Peter Hujar (1934-1987) created stark, stunning, affecting, and sometimes disturbing photographs in black and white. His oeuvre ranged from portraits of famous writers and artists to homoerotic subjects and pictures of domestic animals.  
 
 
  Robert Indiana Robert Indiana (b. 1928) is best known for his contributions to Pop Art, especially his LOVE series of paintings and sculptures. Indiana has incorporated autobiographical and gay themes in many of his pieces.  
 
 
  Jasper Johns Jasper Johns (b. 1930) is known for his iconic yet cryptic paintings. Art historians recognize Johns as a key figure in Pop Art and the transition from Modernism to Post-Modernism.  
 
 
  Lincoln Kirstein (1907-1996) is best known as the leading impresario of the American ballet world, but he also contributed immensely to the fields of dance, visual arts, and literature.  
 
 
  Joseph C. Leyendecker Joseph C. Leyendecker (1874-1951), the leading illustrator of his day, created images (some of them of his lover Charles Beach, the "Arrow Man") that helped define American standards of beauty and sophistication from the 1890s to the 1940s.  
 
 
  George Platt Lynes George Platt Lynes (1907-1955) was a photographer who made his fame as a fashion and portrait photographer, but his greatest work may have been his dance images and male nudes.  
 
 
  Patronage Patronage--the sponsorship of artists and the commissioning of works from them--has remained a significant factor in the creation of queer visual culture in the modern and post-modern eras.  
 
 
  Gay Male Photography Before Stonewall Gay Male Photography Before Stonewall blurs the boundaries between art, erotica, and social history.  
 
 
  Pop Art Pop Art first appeared in England in the 1950s, then flourished in the United States during the early 1960s, the moment of Pop's greatest popularity. Gay men including Robert Indiana, Robert Rauschenberg, Larry Rivers, and Andy Warhol were among the most important figures in the Pop movement.  
 
 
  Fairfield Porter (1907-1975) was a bisexual artist, art critic, and poet now recognized as a major twentieth-century American Intimist painter. His work features lyrical depictions of everyday life and portraits of family members and friends.  
 
 
  Lionel H. Pries (1897-1968) was a noted architect and artist, now primarily remembered for his teaching career at the University of Washington, which was cut short when he was arrested in a vice sting in the late 1950s.  
 
 
  George Quaintance George Quaintance (1902-1957) was an influential figure in a unique American style of art and a pioneer of male physique painting. Though now obscure, he was one of the most flamboyant and interesting gay characters for four decades of the twentieth century.  
 
 
  Robert Rauschenberg Robert Rauschenberg (1925-2008) was one of the most prolific and innovative artists of the late twentieth century. He was at the core of an interdisciplinary group of artists who rebelled against mid-century aesthetic orthodoxy and revolutionized American art.  
 
 
  Larry Rivers (1923-2002), one of the pioneers of Pop Art, was a prolific artist, sculptor, and jazz musician. Although he did not identify as a bisexual, the twice-married artist had significant same-sex sexual experience.  
 
 
  Mel Roberts Mel Roberts (b. 1923) captured the spirit of the California Dream that lured thousands of gay men to the Golden State after World War II. His photographs of young men, many nude, continue to resonate with gay viewers. Click here to view slides of Roberts' work.  
 
 
  Jack Robinson Jack Robinson (1928-1997) became famous as a celebrity and magazine photographer during the 1960s. Before that, he created a series of photographs that document the gay subculture of New Orleans in the 1950s. Click here to view slides of his work.  
 
 
  Francesco Scavullow Francesco Scavullo (1929-2004) is best known for his fashion photography and his eye-catching magazine covers, but he was also such a masterful portrait photographer that the Washington Post declared him "the court painter of our time."  
 
 
  Pavel Tchelitchew Pavel Tchelitchew (1898-1957) was a painter, sculptor, and set designer who created a number of works that illustrate homoerotic desire. He and his lover Charles Henri Ford were at the center of a social world of wealthy, influential homosexuals in New York City.  
 
 
  In a career that spanned over sixty years, American photographer Edmund Teske (1911-1996) created a distinct and inventive body of work that embraced multiple styles and subjects, from somber urban vistas to intimate, often eroticized, portraits.  
 
 
  Carl Van Vechten Carl Van Vechten (1880-1964), a writer and photographer, was known as Harlem's "most enthusiastic and ubiquitous Nordic" during the 1920s. He is often credited for bringing the New Negro Movement to the attention of white Americans.  
 
 
  Andy Warhol Andy Warhol (1928-1987) is the avatar of Pop Art. He is best known for art works that flouted traditional notions of good taste and masculinity, but he also had an enormous impact on gay cinema.  
 
 
  Cady Wells Cady Wells (1904-1954) is famous for his watercolor paintings. He was also a patron of the arts and an activist citizen of the Santa Fe and Taos art colonies from the 1930s to the 1950s.  
 
 
  Monroe Wheeler (1899-1988), a publisher, book designer, and museum director, was a leading figure in New York artistic and gay communities of the 1950s and 1960s, alongside his partner of sixty-eight years, the writer Glenway Wescott.  
 
 
  Minor White (1908-1976) was a renowned photographer, teacher, critic, editor, and curator who created some of the most interesting photographs of male nudes of the second half of the twentieth century. He did not exhibit them for fear of scandal.  
 
 
notable birthdays this week
June 28
 
Florence Henri
RENOWNED AVANT-GARDE PHOTOGRAPHER, 1893
John Inman John Inman
ACCLAIMED COMIC ACTOR, 1935
 
David Kopay
THE FIRST AMERICAN PROFESSIONAL ATHLETE TO COME OUT PUBLICLY, 1942
 
June 29
 
Carl Hester
OLYMPIC EQUESTRIAN, 1967
 
July 1
 
George Sand George Sand
ENORMOUSLY PROLIFIC WRITER KNOWN FOR HER CIGAR-IN-HAND CROSS-DRESSING, 1804
Charles Laughton Charles Laughton
A MOVIE ACTOR AND DIRECTOR TORMENTED BY INTERNALIZED HOMOPHOBIA, 1899
 
Farley Granger Farley Granger
AMERICAN ACTOR KNOWN FOR PLAYING HANDSOME YET EMOTIONALLY VULNERABLE YOUNG MEN, 1925
Hans Werner Henze
GERMAN COMPOSER KNOWN FOR A WIDE RANGE OF MUSICAL STYLES, 1926
 
Paul Russell
NOVELIST KNOWN FOR INTRICATE NARRATIVES THAT EXPLORE GAY RELATIONSHIPS, 1956
Fred Schneider
MEMBER OF THE ROCK BAND THE B-52S, 1960
 
July 2
 
Donald Windham Donald Windham
AMERICAN FICTION WRITER, MEMOIRIST, AND EDITOR, 1920
Sylvia Rivera
LEGENDARY VETERAN OF THE STONEWALL RIOTS WHO HELPED SPARK THE EVENT, 1951
 
Daniel Kowalski
OLYMPIC MEDALIST IN SWIMMING, 1975
Johnny Weir
CHAMPION FIGURE SKATER, 1984
 
July 3
 
Thelma Ellen Wood
ARTIST FICTIONALIZED IN DJUNA BARNES' NIGHTWOOD, 1901
 
About Notable Birthdays
This feature lists people about whom glbtq.com has both entries and complete birth dates. Each person listed has made a significant contribution to or had a significant impact on glbtq culture or history. Most are gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgender, though some are either heterosexual or cannot be adequately characterized using any of these labels.
 
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On June 26, 2015, the Supreme Court of the United States declared that marriage is a fundamental right that must be extended to gay and lesbian couples. In an eloquent decision authored by Justice Anthony Kennedy, and joined by Justices Ginsburg, Breyer, Sotomayor, and Kagan, the Court ruled that the Constitution guarantees a right to same-sex marriage, holding that the Fourteenth Amendment mandates both that states must issue marriage licenses to same-sex couples and also must recognize valid marriages entered into by same-sex couples in other states.

While we await a ruling from the Supreme Court of the United States that may extend marriage equality throughout the nation, Mexico's Supreme Court has, with little fanfare, issued a series of rulings that has effectively legalized same-sex marriage throughout the country. However, Mexico's judicial system is different from that of the United States in that its supreme court does not invalidate state laws en masse. Rather, it issues rulings that become binding precedent in other judicial proceedings until finally the issue is settled. This month a ruling from Mexico's Supreme Court marked a crucial turning point in the process.

Transgender military couple Logan Ireland and Laila Villanueva.

The Department of Defense has recently announced additional protections for gay and lesbian servicemembers and has refined its policy on service by transgender servicemembers. Following in the wake of the successful and incident-free repeal of the discriminatory Don't Ask, Don't Tell policy in 2011, which barred gay men and lesbians from serving openly, the new moves make the U.S. military a more welcoming home for glbtq members.

Alison Bechdel.

At the Tony Awards, broadcast on June 7, 2015, Fun Home, the musical based on Alison Bechdel's graphic memoir of the same name, scored a major upset, winning "Best Musical" and four other Tonys. Besting other more traditional entertainments, including An American in Paris, Fun Home, in the words of Michael Paulson and Patrick Healy in New York Times, "completed a long journey from the margins to the mainstream." Perhaps the first Broadway musical featuring a lesbian protagonist, Fun Home focuses on the cartoonist's relationship with her closeted gay father and explores issues of sexuality, family, memory, and suicide.

Plaintiffs Loretta M. Pangelinan and Kathleen M. Aguero.

On June 5, 2015, Chief Judge Frances Tydingco-Gatewood declared unconstitutional Guam's law that restricts marriage to opposite-sex couples. The ruling takes effect on June 9 and makes Guam the last jurisdiction in the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit to gain marriage equality and the first U.S. territory to do so.

Congratulations to the winners of the 27th Annual Lambda Literary Awards, which were presented at a gala ceremony at New York City's Cooper Union on June 1, 2015. The event was hosted by Kate Clinton and featured musical performances by Lauren Patten and Toshi Reagon. Special Awards were presented to Rita Mae Brown (Pioneer Award) and John Waters (Trustee Award for Excellence in Literature). Ann Balay and Daisy Hernandez were presented Betty Berzon Emerging Writer Awards.

Congratulations to activist and political operative David Mixner. His one-man play, Oh Hell No!, earned a warm audience response in New York in October 2014 and is to open on June 11, 2015 in Los Angeles. In addition, on May 31, 2015, Mixner was awarded an honorary Doctor of Public Service by Washington College, which was the first college founded in the newly independent United States.

It has long been noted that one of the most persistent vices of the self-proclaimed religious is hypocrisy, so it is not very surprising when those who claim to be religious are exposed as hypocrites. Nonetheless some hypocrisy is so egregious that it must be pointed out. Take, for example, the post on May 28, 2015 by Terry Mattingly at GetReligion.org that questions the journalistic ethics of Religious News Service for having accepted a grant from the pro-gay Arcus Foundation.

Monument honoring glbtq veterans.

As we celebrate Memorial Day 2015, we remember the sacrifices made by those who have served in our military, including glbtq servicemembers, both those who served in silence and those who are now able to serve openly. We need especially to remember those who made the ultimate sacrifice. Fittingly, on this Memorial Day, May 25, 2015, the first federally approved monument honoring glbtq veterans will be dedicated at the Abraham Lincoln National Cemetery in Elwood, Illinois.

Make-shift shrine at the bench in Fairview Park, Dublin, where Declan Flynn was murdered.

As we rejoice in Ireland's landslide vote in favor of marriage equality on May 22, 2015, it is well to remember the tragic deaths of Charles Self and Declan Flynn, whose murders in 1982 gave impetus to the nascent Irish gay liberation movement and illustrated the danger in which gay people lived in Ireland until quite recently.

 
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