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Bruce Alonzo Goff (1904-1982), Paul Rudolph (1918-1997), and Charles Moore (1925-1993) were educators and innovators. Known mostly for his residences, Goff rejected the strict geometries of modernism. His houses strongly respond to their sites: the circular forms, abstract shapes, and natural contours found in land, rock and sea. As a visionary, he tried not to follow what came before but to look for design solutions outside the mainstream. Many of his designs are playful and experimental, blurring the distinction between inside and outside with gardens, pools, and rough textures.

Rudolph was at the forefront of a style known as Brutalism, using poured and textured concrete to make aggressive and massive forms. Towers and beams, ramps and windows overlap, penetrate and integrate in strikingly sculptural ways; mechanical and structural systems are often complex. His large-scale government, commercial, and residential buildings around the world are often imaginative and memorable while sometimes disorienting and "in-your-face." As he once said of his designs, "You overdo it in order to make it visible."

Moore's work helped found the postmodern movement. Rebellious and fun, Moore quoted equally from classical structures and pop culture. He argued that architectural forms have meanings and associations and worked with their symbolism. Turning familiar forms into brightly colored icons made a connection to the past while pointing out their current use as appliqué. Moore's scenographic, populist tendencies are best represented in the Piazza d'Italia in New Orleans and museums at Williams College and Dartmouth College.

Alan Buchsbaum is one of the creators of the High Tech style. Bringing off-the-shelf, industrial materials into commercial interiors, juxtaposing open, metal shelving with old English office chairs in New York lofts, Buchsbaum created contemporary, informal spaces for adventurous individuals. He disliked the banality and pretension of formal interiors and worked with clients such as Bette Midler, Diane Keaton, and Christie Brinkley, who appreciated his alternative approach. He died from AIDS complications in 1987.

Franklin D. Israel is well-known for his work in Los Angeles. Taking his cues from the riots, fires, floods, and earthquakes of the city, Israel's work embodies both the tension of the city and the need to find a place to rest. His homes for Hollywood figures and offices for film companies challenge notions of comfort and order. When he learned about his HIV-positive status, Israel became more open about his sexuality. Knowing that his time might be limited, he worked hard to make his designs innovative, tough, and visually attractive.

Jed Johnson (1949-1996) designed interiors, sometimes in association with his life partner, architect Alan Wanzenberg. Johnson began editing and directing films at Andy Warhol's Factory and designed the artist's townhouse. By 1980, he had opened his own office and developed an eclectic style that included the contemporary and classic. With clients such as Richard Gere, Mick Jagger, and Barbra Streisand, Johnson decorated by "looking at the personality of the client and taking your clues from it. . . . You get an image of a room that would suit them," he remarked. Johnson died in the 1996 TWA Flight 800 explosion.

Currently active gay and lesbian architects include, in addition to Philip Johnson, such prominent figures as Rodolfo Machado, Mark Robbins, Stanley Saitowitz, David Schwarz, Jorge Silvetti, and Robert A. M. Stern. In addition, several writers who focus on architecture and space include such authors as Stanley Abercrombie, Aaron Betsky, Jonathan Boorstein, Arthur Drexler, Herbert Muschamp, Meyer Rus, Jim Russell, Joel Sanders, Henry Urbach, and Wayne Attoe.

Queer Space

While the listings above acknowledge the accomplishments of gay and lesbian writers, curators, designers, and architects, architectural contributions are also made by those outside the profession of architecture. Many North American and Western European cities have large concentrations of gay men and lesbians. Because the relationship between people and places is always reciprocal, cities that have large queer populations become spaces for possibility, sites of pleasure, containment, visibility, and escape.

Affording the opportunity for both community and anonymity, the city thus comes to embody "queer space." This is particularly so of areas where gay, lesbian, and transgender people live and gather, the so-called "gay ghettos," which have been crucial to the modern gay and lesbian political and social movements. The ghettos have not only provided protective space for queer people, but they have also served as the centers of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender communities--even for people who do not actually live in them.

The appropriation, formation, and transformation of neighborhoods by gay and lesbian residents often have significant civic and economic impact, insofar as this process leads to the rejuvenation of neglected areas. Sometimes known as "urban pioneers," gay men and lesbians have been in the forefront of the gentrification of neighborhoods in most major cities of the United States.

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