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However, gay neighborhoods may be more transitory than permanent. After these enclaves are fully developed, their character tends to shift again. Once "cleaned up," the neighborhoods often depend less on a particular subculture and more on broader economic considerations. Moreover, as tolerance and acceptance of gay, lesbian, and transgender people increase, these groups have less need and desire to develop specific neighborhoods.

Government agencies have begun to acknowledge the considerable contributions of gay and lesbian residents to urban areas. Some cities, such as, for example, New Orleans, have launched campaigns to attract gay and lesbian residents as a means of revitalizing urban areas. Others have recognized that sites of commerce, socializing, and political life have cultural and historical significance.

Thus, the main street in Chicago's New Town is now lined with rainbow topped pylons. In New York, the site of the 1969 Stonewall riots has been designated a National Historic Landmark. Books such as Martinac's The Queerest Places and Higgs's Queer Sites help document places of particular significance for gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, and queer people.

The practice of marking sites of gay and lesbian significance is sometimes controversial, however. Arguments develop about how to interpret the queer past and build a queer future. The question of what makes a space queer or queer-friendly can be contentious. The conflicting agendas of "assimilationists" campaigning for human rights and "resistors" opposing sexual hegemony complicate our thinking about public space.

Still, there is no denying that the concept of queer space, a conscious and activist recognition of the role sexual difference plays in architectural projects and places, is an important one. At its most basic, the phrase describes the physical location where queer people conduct their lives.

While it is very difficult for anyone to act outside the of most public and private space, queer space offers the promise of a place where members of sexual minorities can act freely and independently, a place where mainstream values that determine "appropriate" conduct can be resisted and restructured. Architecture and space are such crucial elements to human relationships that it is not surprising that the connections between sexuality, identity, and place-making have recently become an important topic of queer studies.

Ira Tattelman

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Glbtq people have been in the vanguard of gentrification, a process of renewing neighborhoods that has both positive and negative effects.

social sciences >> Overview:  Geography

Over the past 25 years, the academic discipline of Geography, especially its social scientific and humanistic branch, has been attuned to glbtq people, places, and natures.

literature >> Beckford, William

Extremely wealthy and connected to the aristocracy, British author and connoisseur William Beckford was ostracized by English society for the last sixty years of his life because of his homosexuality.

arts >> Findlater, James Ogilvy, Earl of

James Ogilvy, the 7th Earl of Findlater and 4th Earl of Seafield, was an accomplished amateur landscape architect and philanthropist; after his death, scandal erupted when he was outed by his own relatives in Scotland.

literature >> Halliburton, Richard

There has been renewed interest in the life and work of American adventurer and travel writer Richard Halliburton at least in part because of his homosexuality.

arts >> Johnson, Philip

A dominating force in American architecture, Philip C. Johnson had a chameleon-like career in which he often reinvented himself.

literature >> Martinac, Paula

Writer Paula Martinac's career has been devoted to exploring and documenting the place that lesbians occupy in society, history, and the family.

arts >> Morgan, Julia

Pioneering California architect Julia Morgan designed more than 700 buildings, including many commissioned by women's groups, but she is most remembered as the architect of San Simeon.

arts >> Pries, Lionel H.

Lionel H. Pries was a noted architect and artist, now primarily remembered for his teaching career at the University of Washington, which was cut short when he was arrested in a vice sting in the late 1950s.

arts >> Rudolph, Paul

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Bell, David and Gill Valentine, eds. Mapping Desire. London: Routledge, 1995.

Betsky, Aaron. Queer Space: Architecture and Same Sex Desire. New York: William Morrow, 1997.

Boone, Joseph A., et al., eds. Queer Frontiers: Millennial Geographies, Genders, and Generations. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2000.

Boutelle, Sara Holmes. Julia Morgan Architect. New York: Abbeville Press, 1988.

Cook, John W., and Heinrich Klotz. Conversations with Architects. New York: Praeger, 1973.

Higgs, David, ed. Queer Sites: Gay Urban Histories Since 1600. London: Routledge, 1999.

Ingram, Gordon Brent, Anne-Marie Bouthillette, and Yolanda Retter, eds. Queers in Space: Communities, Public Places, Sites of Resistance. Seattle: Bay Press, 1997.

Leap, William L., ed. Public Sex/Gay Space. New York: Columbia University Press, 1999.

Martinac, Paula. The Queerest Places: A National Guide to Gay and Lesbian Historic Sites. New York: Henry Holt, 1997.

Schifter, Jacobo. Public Sex in a Latin Society. Binghamton, N.Y.: Hayworth Press, 2000.

Shand-Tucci, Douglass. Boston Bohemia 1881-1900, Ralph Adams Cram: Life and Architecture. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1995.

Taylor, Jerry. "Obituary--Eleanor Raymond." The Boston Globe (July 28, 1989): 18.

Twombly, Robert. Louis Sullivan: His Life and Work. New York: Viking, 1986.

Vilades, Pilar. "The Education of Jed Johnson." Home 37.7 (July 1991): 120-125.


    Citation Information
    Author: Tattelman, Ira  
    Entry Title: Architecture  
    General Editor: Claude J. Summers  
    Publication Name: glbtq: An Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual,
Transgender, and Queer Culture
    Publication Date: 2002  
    Date Last Updated June 20, 2005  
    Web Address  
    Publisher glbtq, Inc.
1130 West Adams
Chicago, IL   60607
    Today's Date  
    Encyclopedia Copyright: © 2002-2006, glbtq, Inc.  
    Entry Copyright © 2002, glbtq, Inc.  


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