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arts

Alpha Index:  A-B  C-F  G-K  L-Q  R-S  T-Z

Subjects:  A-B  C-E  F-L  M-Z

     
European Film  
 
page: 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  

Noteworthy French films include Jean Delannoy's Les amitiés particulières (This Special Friendship, 1964), which focuses on the youthful friendships, with homoerotic overtones, among a group of boys in a strict French Roman Catholic boarding school in the 1930s. The popular farce La cage aux folles (1978), directed by Edouard Molinaro, is about a gay couple whose lives are turned upside down when the son of one of the men announces he is getting married.

Coup de foudre (Entre Nous, 1983), directed by Diane Kurys, concerns two women who meet in the aftermath of World War II and gradually form a deep bond that excludes their husbands and children. André Téchiné's J'embrasse pas (I Don't Kiss, 1991), focuses on a young man who leaves his home in the country to pursue an acting career in Paris but is eventually forced to prostitute himself to men, while Les roseaux sauvages (Wild Reeds, 1994), is a gracefully sensual coming-of-age story set in the early 1960s.

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Les nuits fauves (Savage Nights, 1992), directed by Cyril Collard, concerns a promiscuous bisexual male (played by Collard himself) coping with the knowledge that he is HIV-positive; Collard died the following year of an AIDS-related illness. Ma vie en rose (1997), directed by Alain Berliner, is the tale of an eight year-old boy who wants to live his life as a girl.

Craig Kaczorowski

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   Related Entries
  
arts >> Overview:  Bisexuality in Film

The history of gays and lesbians in film is well documented, but bisexuality, in both characters and performers, has been less examined.

arts >> Overview:  Film

Since cinema began, Hollywood has been fascinated with finding ways of representing homosexuality.

arts >> Overview:  Film Directors

Gay, lesbian, and bisexual film directors have been a vital creative presence in cinema since the medium's inception over one hundred years ago.

arts >> Overview:  Subjects of the Visual Arts: Orpheus

Although most artists since the Hellenistic age ignore the homosexual aspect of Orpheus, depicting him instead as the classical pattern of the poet-musician, notable exceptions are Colard Mansion and Albrecht Dürer.

arts >> Overview:  Subjects of the Visual Arts: St. Sebastian

Sebastian's broad and long-standing presence in queer artistic production suggests that he functions as an emblem of the feelings of shame, rejection, inverted desire, and loneliness endured by queer people in a homophobic society.

arts >> Overview:  Transsexuality in Film

Representations of transsexuality in films range from freak-show exploitation, to dramatic and documentary depictions, to the use of transsexuality as a metaphor for exploring the crossing of all kinds of borders.

arts >> Akerman, Chantal

Innovative Belgian filmmaker Chantal Akerman creates films that are at once experimental and personal and that often feature lesbian content.

arts >> Almodóvar, Pedro

Spanish director Pedro Almodóvar's gay and transsexual themed films present absurd situations framed by the trappings of everyday life.

literature >> Andersen, Hans Christian

Danish fairy tale writer Hans Christian Andersen was probably bisexual in orientation, though he may well have remained a virgin.

arts >> Anger, Kenneth

One of America's first openly gay filmmakers, and certainly the first whose work addressed homosexuality in an undisguised, self-implicating manner, Kenneth Anger occupies an important place in the history of experimental filmmaking.

arts >> Bogarde, Sir Dirk

Although British film star Dirk Bogarde only tacitly acknowledged his homosexuality during most of his life, he deserves credit as the first actor to create a sympathetic gay character in British film.

arts >> Caravaggio

The most original painter of early seventeenth-century Europe, Caravaggio imbues his art with homoeroticism.

arts >> Chéreau, Patrice

Award-winning French director, screenwriter, and actor Patrice Chéreau has earned international renown for his visionary, often controversial, productions of opera, theater, and film

arts >> Cocteau, Jean

For prolific French poet and artist Jean Cocteau, filmmaking may have served as the best medium for the expression of his genius.

arts >> Collard, Cyril

French writer and filmmaker Cyril Collard became a key figure in the struggle to revise the representation of AIDS in literature and art.

arts >> Crisp, Quentin

"Not merely a self-confessed homosexual, but a self-evident one," actor, writer, performance artist, and wit Quentin Crisp left as his most significant legacy an example of courage.

arts >> Davies, Terence

British filmmaker Terence Davies creates aesthetically compelling films that offer honest and complex psychological portraits of gay adults and youths.

arts >> Davis, Brad

Although American gay film icon Brad Davis has been described as "the first heterosexual actor to die of AIDS," he was widely known as bisexual within the entertainment community.

arts >> Dietrich, Marlene

Actress and cabaret performer Marlene Dietrich scandalized society almost as much by wearing trousers in public as by her numerous love affairs with both men and women.

arts >> Fassbinder, Rainer Werner

Responsible for bringing the much-acclaimed New German Cinema of the 1960s and 1970s to the attention of international audiences, Rainer Werner Fassbinder used cinematic conventions of Hollywood to deliver ideological arguments of the New Left.

literature >> Forster, E. M.

One of the finest English novelists of the twentieth century and a tireless defender of humane values, Forster deserves a special place in the gay and lesbian literary heritage.

arts >> Fry, Stephen

British actor Stephen Fry, who scored a triumph as Oscar Wilde in the film Wilde, is also an accomplished comic, novelist, memoirist, and philanthropist.

literature >> Genet, Jean

Jean Genet's work has left a powerful legacy to post-modernity and remains a provocation to questions of gay identity.

social sciences >> Hirschfeld, Magnus

German-born Magnus Hirschfeld deserves recognition as a significant theorist of sexuality and the most prominent advocate of homosexual emancipation of his time.

arts >> Iglesia, Eloy de la

Eloy de la Iglesia was among the first Spanish directors to make films with homosexual themes, but his work has only recently become the subject of serious film scholarship.

arts >> Ivory, James (b. 1928), and Ismail Merchant (1936-2005)

Perhaps the most enduring and influential gay partnership in film history, James Ivory and Ismail Merchant are known for their visually sumptuous period pieces based on literary classics.

literature >> Jarman, Derek

In both his films and his writings, Derek Jarman's explicit project was to celebrate gay sexuality and imagine a place for it in English culture.

literature >> Kureishi, Hanif

Although he does not employ the idiom of identity politics, Hanif Kureishi frequently gives gay men, lesbians, and bisexuals significant roles in his works.

social sciences >> Ludwig II of Bavaria

Best known for his enthusiastic patronage of Richard Wagner and for his fabulous castles, Ludwig II of Bavaria withdrew from public life, perhaps in part due to the impossibility of living openly as a gay man.

literature >> Mann, Thomas

One of Germany's greatest twentieth-century authors, Thomas Mann encoded his own homosexuality in his novels but thought that homosexuality led to the destruction of social institutions and the death of the individual homosexual.

arts >> Marais, Jean

Jean Marais became one of the most celebrated stars of French movies, theater, and television partly because of the early sponsorship of writer and film director Jean Cocteau.

literature >> Marlowe, Christopher

Christopher Marlowe represents homoerotic situations and incidents in his plays and poems more frequently and more variously that any other major English Renaissance writer.

literature >> Orton, Joe

The gay British playwright Joe Orton, an important precursor of the queer literary movement, is perhaps the finest writer of farce in the twentieth century.

arts >> Ottinger, Ulrike

Avant-garde German filmmaker Ulrike Ottinger creates both fictional fantasy worlds that shatter traditional gender constructions and documentaries that examine marginalized peoples.

arts >> Ozpetek, Ferzan

Thanks to the critical and commercial success of most of his films, Turkish-born Italian director Ferzan Ozpetek has challenged the celluloid closet that silenced or marginalized queerness in Italian film.

social sciences >> Paragraph 175

Paragraph 175 was the German law prohibiting sex between men; strengthened by the Nazis, it was the statue under which homosexuals were sent to concentration camps.

arts >> Pasolini, Pier Paolo

One of the most important cultural figures to emerge from post-World War II Italy, Pier Paolo Pasolini was a versatile man-of-letters, but he was foremost a filmmaker.

arts >> Porter, Cole

Living the paradoxical life of an openly closeted gay man, songwriter Cole Porter introduced non-normative values and risqué double entendres into what was one of the most pedestrian and hackneyed of cultural forms.

arts >> Praunheim, Rosa von

One of Germany's leading gay activists and chroniclers of queer life, filmmaker Rosa von Praunheim makes films intended to foster self-examination by gay people and to advance gay rights.

arts >> Richardson, Tony

Bisexual British film and stage director Tony Richardson was instrumental in challenging British censorship codes, especially regarding the representation of homosexuals.

social sciences >> Röhm, Ernst

Ernst Röhm, both an avid supporter of Hitler and the national socialist movement in Germany and a homosexual, was assassinated in 1934, when the German leader "cleansed" the party of homosexuals.

literature >> Sade, Marquis de

Whether or not the Marquis de Sade was himself bisexual, homosexual activity is an important item in his program of revolutionary sexual libertinism.

arts >> Schlesinger, John

British director John Schlesinger has been a significant force in introducing homosexual themes into mainstream British and American films.

literature >> Shakespeare, William

As one of the key figures that western civilization has used to define itself, William Shakespeare stands in a complicated, fiercely contested relationship to homosexuality.

arts >> Stiller, Mauritz

Swedish film director Mauritz Stiller is best known for his discovery of Greta Garbo, but the flamboyant gay Svengali also deserves recognition as a key figure in forging a national cinema that was eventually to become notable for its progressive treatment of sexuality and desire.

arts >> Treut, Monika

German filmmaker Monika Treut consistently explores challenging and controversial issues surrounding minority sexual and gender identities.

arts >> Visconti, Luchino

The arc of the film career of Luchino Visconti, the most contradictory and varied of the major Italian filmmakers, mirrors his increasing openness about his homosexuality.

literature >> Winsloe, Christa

The German novelist, dramatist, and screenwriter Christa Winsloe reflected her lesbianism in works that treat sexual identity within societies stratified according to gender roles.

social sciences >> Wolfenden Report

The Wolfenden Report, a 1957 British government study, recommended that homosexual behavior between consenting adults in private no longer be criminalized in England.

literature >> Woolf, Virginia

Passionate friendships with women were essential to the life and work of novelist Virginia Woolf.


    Bibliography
   

Bacon, Henry. Visconti: Exploration of Beauty and Decay. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Bara´nski, Zygmunt, ed. Pasolini Old and New: Surveys and Studies. Dublin: Four Courts Press, 1999.

Dyer, Richard. Now You See It: Studies on Lesbian and Gay Film. New York: Routledge, 1990.

Gever, Martha, John Greyson, and Pratihba Parmar, eds. Queer Looks: Perspectives on Lesbian and Gay Films and Video. New York: Routledge, 1993.

Hanson, Ellis. Outtakes: Essays on Queer Theory and Film. Durham, N. C.: Duke University Press, 1999.

Kuzniar, Alice. The Queer German Cinema. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2000.

Lippard, Chris, ed. By Angels Driven: The Films of Derek Jarman. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1996.

Murray, Raymond. Images in the Dark: An Encyclopedia of Gay and Lesbian Film and Video. Philadelphia: TLA Publications, 1994.

Sklar, Robert. Film: An International History of the Medium. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1993.

Stack, Oswald. Pasolini on Pasolini; Interviews with Oswald Stack. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1969.

Steegmuller, Francis. Cocteau, a Biography. Boston: D.R. Godine, 1986.

Vernon, Kathleen, and Barbara Morris, eds. Post-Franco, Postmodern: The Films of Pedro Almodóvar. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1995.

Watson, Wallace Steadman. Understanding Rainer Werner Fassbinder: Film as Private and Public Art. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1996.

Weiss, Andrea. Violets and Vampires: Lesbians in Film. London: Penguin, 1993.

 

    Citation Information
         
    Author: Kaczorowski, Craig  
    Entry Title: European Film  
    General Editor: Claude J. Summers  
    Publication Name: glbtq: An Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual,
Transgender, and Queer Culture
 
    Publication Date: 2002  
    Date Last Updated September 14, 2005  
    Web Address www.glbtq.com/arts/eur_film.html  
    Publisher glbtq, Inc.
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Chicago, IL   60607
 
    Today's Date  
    Encyclopedia Copyright: © 2002-2006, glbtq, Inc.  
    Entry Copyright © 2004, glbtq, Inc.  
 

 

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