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arts

Alpha Index:  A-B  C-F  G-K  L-Q  R-S  T-Z

Subjects:  A-B  C-E  F-L  M-Z

     
Patronage I: The Western World from Ancient Greece until 1900  
 
page: 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  

Conclusions

Throughout western history, queer patrons have commissioned significant works of art and architecture, which celebrated their loves and otherwise visualized their experiences and insights. The Sistine Ceiling, painted by Michelangelo for Pope Julius; the commission for scenes of Saint Matthew, which Del Monte secured for Caravaggio; and Montesquiou's encouragement of Symbolist and Art Nouveau artists are among the many instances of queer patronage that have significantly impacted the development of mainstream art.

Scholars have acknowledged the aesthetic contributions made by the art works commissioned by the individuals discussed here, but they have overlooked the motivations of their patronage. It is time for art historians to consider ways that patronage was "queered" by men and women who embraced same-sex love or who otherwise deviated from gender and sexual norms.

Sponsor Message.

Richard G. Mann

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   Related Entries
  
arts >> Overview:  Castrati

Male singers who were castrated before they reached puberty, castrati reached the height of their popularity in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries; although not necessarily homosexual, they occupy a "queer space" in cultural history.

literature >> Overview:  Decadence

Nineteenth-century Decadent literature either describes aspects of decadent life and society or reflects the decadent literary aesthetic.

arts >> Overview:  Patronage II: The Western World since 1900

Patronage--the sponsorship of artists and the commissioning of works from them--has remained a significant factor in the creation of queer visual culture in the modern era.

social sciences >> Overview:  Roman Catholicism

Historically, the Roman Catholic Church may be the institution most responsible for the suffering of individuals involved in same-sex sexual relationships.

arts >> Overview:  Subjects of the Visual Arts: Diana

The goddess of chastity, Diana is frequently depicted with nymphs lovingly caring for her body, thus enacting a considerable degree of physical intimacy.

arts >> Overview:  Subjects of the Visual Arts: Ganymede

Since antiquity Ganymede, the beautiful Phrygian youth abducted by Jupiter, has served as an artistic expression for homosexuality.

arts >> Overview:  Subjects of the Visual Arts: Hermaphrodites

Hermaphrodites are a common subject in ancient art, but disappear from art history until the Renaissance, when they are most often employed as non-erotic symbols of the union of opposites.

arts >> Overview:  Subjects of the Visual Arts: St. Sebastian

Sebastian's broad and long-standing presence in queer artistic production suggests that he functions as an emblem of the feelings of shame, rejection, inverted desire, and loneliness endured by queer people in a homophobic society.

arts >> Overview:  Symbolists

The symbolist movement in painting and literature, which flourished in Europe from 1886 to 1905, was the first self-consciously queer movement in Western art history.

literature >> Beckford, William

Extremely wealthy and connected to the aristocracy, British author and connoisseur William Beckford was ostracized by English society for the last sixty years of his life because of his homosexuality.

arts >> Borghese, Scipione Caffarelli

Scipione Caffarelli Borghese, a seventeenth-century Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church, was a bold and influential patron and collector of the visual arts.

arts >> Caravaggio

The most original painter of early seventeenth-century Europe, Caravaggio imbues his art with homoeroticism.

social sciences >> Christina of Sweden

Enigmatic monarch and enthusiastic patron of the arts, Christina of Sweden shocked Europeans by her aversion to marriage, her "mannish" ways, and her love for women, as well as by the abdication of her throne at the age of twenty-seven.

arts >> Correggio (Antonio Allegri)

One of the most innovative Italian painters of the sixteenth century, Corregio (Antonio Allegri) devised a highly original manner than anticipates the Baroque style of the seventeenth century.

social sciences >> Frederick the Great

The homosexuality of Frederick the Great of Prussia was an open secret during his reign, yet some historians have attempted to deny it or to diminish its significance.

arts >> Guercino (Giovanni Francesco Barbieri)

One of the leading Italian painters of the seventeenth century, Guercino fused spirituality and homoerotic desire in his paintings of religious subjects.

social sciences >> Hadrian

The love of the second-century Roman emperor Hadrian for the beautiful youth Antinous was exceptional not because the lovers were male, but because of its intensity.

literature >> James VI and I

Sponsor of the English translation of the Bible that bears his name and himself an accomplished author, James VI of Scotland (and later James I of England) was well known for his passionate attachments to handsome young men.

literature >> James, Henry

Though closeted, Henry James had a number of intimate relations with young men, and his sexual orientation imbued his fiction.

arts >> Michelangelo Buonarroti

The most famous artist who ever lived, Michelangelo left an enormous legacy in sculpture, painting, drawing, architecture, and poetry; while the artist's sexual behavior cannot be documented, the homoerotic character of his drawings, letters, and poetry is unmistakable.

literature >> Montesquiou-Fezensac, Count Robert de

Count Robert de Montesquiou was a writer during France's Belle Epoque, but he is best remembered as a dandy and an aesthete, who inspired the literary creations of others.

social sciences >> Orléans, Philippe, Duke of

Known as "Monsieur," Philippe, Duke of Orléans lived in the shadow of his brother, Louis XIV, and is today remembered chiefly for his homosexuality.

literature >> Proust, Marcel

Marcel Proust is the author of A la recherche du temps perdu, one of the major achievements of Modernism and a great gay novel.

literature >> Santayana, George

Although late in fully understanding his sexual preference, George Santayana wrote a series of sonnets celebrating his love for a friend who died young and described his male friendships in rhapsodic terms in his autobiography.

arts >> Sargent, John Singer

The evidence of the homosexuality of celebrated portrait artist John Singer Sargent resides largely in his work, especially his genre paintings and male nudes.

arts >> Subjects of the Visual Arts: Harmodius and Aristogeiton

Athenian lovers Harmodius and Aristogeiton were remembered in ancient Greece as the great tyrannicides and celebrated as lovers, patriots, and martyrs.


    Bibliography
   

Bergeron, David M. King James and Letters of Homoerotic Desire. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1999.

Fernandez, Dominque. A Hidden Love: Homosexuality and Art. New York: Prestel, 2001.

Hall, Michael. "What Do Victorian Churches Mean? Symbolism and Sacramentalism in Anglican Church Architecture, 1850-1870." The Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 59.1 (March 2000): 78-95.

Hermans, Ulrich, ed. Christina, Königin von Schweden. Bramsche: Rasch, 1997. (Catalogue of an exhibition held at Kulturgeschlicten Museum, Osnabrück, 1997-98.)

Hibbard, Howard. Caravaggio. 2nd ed. New York: Harper & Row, 1983.

Munhall, Edgar. Whistler and Montesquiou: The Butterfly and the Bat. New York: Flammarion, 1995. (Catalogue of an exhibition held at The Frick Collection, New York, 1995.)

Saslow, James M. Pictures and Passions: A History of Homosexuality in the Art. New York: Viking, 1999.

Shand-Tucci, Douglass. The Art of Scandal: The Life and Times of Isabella Stewart Gardner. New York: Harper-Collins, 1997.

Strong, Roy. The Cult of Elizabeth. London: Thames and Hudson, 1977.

Volker, Reinhardt. Kardinal Scipione Borghese, 1603-1633. Vermögen, Finanzen and sozialer Aufstieg eines Papstnepoten. Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom, no. 58. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1984.

 

    Citation Information
         
    Author: Mann, Richard G.  
    Entry Title: Patronage I: The Western World from Ancient Greece until 1900  
    General Editor: Claude J. Summers  
    Publication Name: glbtq: An Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual,
Transgender, and Queer Culture
 
    Publication Date: 2005  
    Date Last Updated October 3, 2006  
    Web Address www.glbtq.com/arts/patronage_1.html  
    Publisher glbtq, Inc.
1130 West Adams
Chicago, IL   60607
 
    Today's Date  
    Encyclopedia Copyright: © 2002-2006, glbtq, Inc.  
    Entry Copyright © 2005, glbtq, inc.  
 

 

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