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Solomon, Simeon (1840-1905)  
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In addition, sixteen of his works were included in a 1906 exhibition of works by Jewish artists at the Whitechapel Art Gallery. Simeon Solomon, an Appreciation by Julia Ellsworth was published in New York in 1908.

However, Simeon soon fell into neglect. His contribution to British art in general, and to the Pre-Raphaelite movement in particular, was lost to scholars for nearly a century.

He and his work have been re-examined through the lens of gender studies only during the 1990s. A web site devoted to him has recently been mounted on the internet by art historian Roberto Ferrari. It includes digital images of some works, full text files of some writings about the artist, and a comprehensive bibliography. The site should facilitate scholarly study of this important Victorian artist.

Ray Anne Lockard

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literature >> Overview:  Aestheticism

A theory of art and an approach to living that influenced many European and American gay male and lesbian writers at the turn of the twentieth century, aestheticism stressed the independence of art from all moral and social conditions and judgments.

arts >> Overview:  European Art: Nineteenth Century

Several artists and art critics of the nineteenth century achieved a self-aware homosexual identity that is expressed in both their lives and their works, but lesbianism is only rarely depicted in terms of identity during this period.

arts >> Overview:  Subjects of the Visual Arts: David and Jonathan

It is not surprising, since the Bible insists that David be looked at and admired, that he should emerge in Western art as the incarnation of male physical attractiveness, especially as rendered by Michelangelo.

arts >> Overview:  Subjects in the Visual Arts: Dionysus

The Greek god of wine, revelry, and orgiastic delights, and the patron god of hermaphrodites and transvestites, Dionysus has been extremely popular as a subject of Western art.

arts >> Overview:  Subjects of the Visual Arts: Nude Males

Throughout much of history, the nude male figure was virtually the only subject that could be used to articulate homoerotic desire in publicly displayed works of art, as well as those works of art intended for private "consumption."

arts >> Overview:  Subjects of the Visual Arts: Sappho

Despite Sappho's status as most ancient lesbian foremother, her image is almost entirely absent from modern and contemporary lesbian art.

arts >> Beardsley, Aubrey

English decadent and Symbolist artist Aubrey Beardsley made a lasting contribution to the art of illustration; a satirist with a gift for caricature and grotesquerie, Beardsley attacked Victorian sexual values.

literature >> Pater, Walter

The aesthetic of the important and influential Victorian critic Walter Pater reflected a homosexual sensibility.

literature >> Swinburne, Algernon Charles

Algernon Charles Swinburne was interested in flagellation, sadomasochism, bisexuality, and lesbianism, not only for their erotics but also as gestures of social and cultural rebellion.

literature >> Symonds, John Addington

John Addington Symonds was the most daring innovator in the history of nineteenth-century British homosexual writing and consciousness.


Burman, Rickie, ed. From Prodigy to Outcast, Simeon Solomon: Pre-Raphaelite Artist. London: Jewish Museum, 2001.

Collins, Jeffrey Laird. "Prototype, Posing and Preference in the Illustrations of Frederick Sandys and Simeon Solomon." Pocket Cathedrals: Pre-Raphaelite Book Illustration. Susan Casteras, ed. New Haven, Conn.: Yale Center for British Art, 1991. 79-91, 110.

Cruise, Colin. "'Lovely Devils': Simeon Solomon and Pre-Raphaelite Masculinity." Re-Framing the Pre-Raphaelites: Historical and Theoretical Essays. Ellen Harding, ed. Aldershot, England: Scolar Press, 1996. 195-210.

_____. "Simeon Solomon: A Drama of Desire." The Jewish Quarterly 45 (Fall 1998): 62-67.

Ferrari, Roberto. Simeon Solomon Research Archives.

Morgan, Thais E. "Perverse Male Bodies: Simeon Solomon and Algernon Charles Swinburne." Outlooks: Lesbian and Gay Sexualities and Visual Cultures. Peter Horne and Reine Lewis, eds. New York: Routledge, 1996. 61-85.

_____. "Victorian Effeminacies." Victorian Sexual Dissidence. Richard Dellamora, ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999. 109-125.

Seymour, Gayle M. "Simeon Solomon and the Biblical Construction of Marginal Identity in Victorian England." Reclaiming the Sacred: The Bible in Gay and Lesbian Culture. Raymond-Jean Frontain, ed. New York: Haworth, 1997. 97-119.

Solomon: A Family of Painters: Abraham Solomon (1823-1862), Rebecca Solomon (1832-1866), Simeon Solomon (1840-1905). [Exhibition: November 8-December 31, 1985, Geffrye Museum; January 18-March 9, 1986, Birmingham Museum of Art] London: Inner London Education Authority, 1985.

Solomon, Simeon. A Vision of Love Revealed in Sleep. London: F. S. Ellis, 1871. Rpt. Nineteenth-Century Writings on Homosexuality: A Sourcebook. Chris White, ed. London: Routledge, 1999. 289-309.


    Citation Information
    Author: Lockard, Ray Anne  
    Entry Title: Solomon, Simeon  
    General Editor: Claude J. Summers  
    Publication Name: glbtq: An Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual,
Transgender, and Queer Culture
    Publication Date: 2002  
    Date Last Updated June 28, 2007  
    Web Address  
    Publisher glbtq, Inc.
1130 West Adams
Chicago, IL   60607
    Today's Date  
    Encyclopedia Copyright: © 2002-2006, glbtq, Inc.  
    Entry Copyright © 2002, glbtq, Inc.  


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