The works of García Lorca, internationally recognized as Spain's most prominent lyric poet and dramatist of the twentieth century, are filled with thinly veiled homosexual motifs and themes.
There has always been homosexual involvement in American musical theatre and a homosexual sensibility even in straight musicals, and recently the Broadway musical has welcomed openly homosexual themes and situations.
Best known for his genius in art and architecture, Michelangelo was also an accomplished author of homoerotic poetry.
The African-American gay male literary tradition consists of a substantial body of texts and includes some of the most gifted writers of the twentieth century.
Combining elements of incongruity, theatricality, and exaggeration, camp is a form of humor that helps homosexuals cope with a hostile environment.
Langston Hughes, whose literary legacy is enormous and varied, was closeted, but homosexuality was an important influence on his literary imagination, and many of his poems may be read as gay texts.
James Baldwin, a pioneering figure in twentieth-century literature, wrote sustained and articulate challenges to American racism and mandatory heterosexuality.
Oscar Wilde is important both as an accomplished writer and as a symbolic figure who exemplified a way of being homosexual at a pivotal moment in the emergence of gay consciousness.
Congratulations to April Ashley, who on June 15, 2012 was named a Member of the British Empire (MBE) by Queen Elizabeth II. A former model and actress turned activist, Ashley is the first openly transgender person named in the monarch's "honor's list." She was honored for her "services to transgender equality."
The 77-year-old Ashley was born George Jamieson in Liverpool. Fleeing an unhappy childhood, in which she endured numerous beatings because of her effeminacy, she joined the Merchant Navy at the age of 14. After a suicide attempt at the age of 15, she was discharged from the Merchant Navy and subjected to electric shock treatment at a mental institution, where she was raped.
In 1950, she moved to Paris, where she began living as a woman, became a transvestite entertainer, and worked as a hostess at Le Carousel, a drag club. At the age of 25, on May 12, 1960, she underwent sex reassignment surgery in Casablanca.
Ashley then returned to England, where she became a top fashion model and appeared in small roles in films. She was "outed" in 1961, when a friend sold her story to the media.
The exposure created a scandal and made her into a "celebrity freak." It effectively ended her career.
She was rumored to have had romantic liaisons with prominent men, including actors Omar Sharif and Peter O'Toole and artists Pablo Picasso and Salvador Dali.
In 1963, she married Arthur Corbett, an Eton-educated aristocrat who later became the 3rd Baron Rowallan. Although Corbett knew of her history when they married, in 1970 he sued to have the marriage annulled on the grounds that Ashley had been born male.
As Michael Seabrook and Nick McDermott report in London's Daily Mail, the divorce proceedings "became one of the most talked about events of the decade with details of the case exploding over the newspapers. The couple faced each other in the courtroom, with Corbett claiming the union should be annulled on the grounds that because Ashley had been born a man, the marriage had never been legally sound."
The court ruled in Corbett's favor, thus setting a precedent that left transsexuals in legal limbo. Not until 2004 was legislation passed that allowed transsexuals to be recognised legally as the gender of their choice, legislation that Ashley emerged in the new millennium to champion.
In 2005, after the passage of the Gender Recognition Act 2004, Ashley was finally legally recognized as a female and issued with a new birth certificate. The then Deputy Prime Minister of the United Kingdom John Prescott, who knew Ashley from the 1950s, helped her with the procedure.
In the video below, Ashley is interviewed in 2010 in connection with an exhibit on gender at London's Wellcome Collection.