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Popular Topics in Social Sciences
Africa: Sub-Saharan, Pre-Independence
With reports from hundreds of sub-Saharan African locales of male-male sexual relations and from about fifty of female-female sexual relations, it is clear that same-sex sexual relations existed in traditional African societies, though varying in forms and in the degree of public acceptance
Stonewall Riots Stonewall Riots
The confrontations between police and demonstrators at the Stonewall Inn in New York City the weekend of June 27-29, 1969 mark the beginning of the modern glbtq movement for equal rights.
Native Americans
A social role for individuals who crossed or mixed male and female characteristics was one of the most widely distributed institutions of native North America.
The Sexual Revolution, 1960-1980 The Sexual Revolution, 1960-1980
The sexual revolution of post-World War II America changed sexual and gender roles profoundly.
Mixed-Orientation Marriages
Mixed-orientation marriages--those in which one partner is straight and the other is gay or lesbian--often end in divorce, but such an ending is not inevitable.
Leather Culture
"Leather" is a blanket term for a large array of sexual preferences, identities, relationship structures, and social organizations loosely tied together by the thread of what is conventionally understood as sadomasochistic sex.
Transgender Activism
Since the late nineteenth century, transgendered people have advocated legal and social reforms that would ameliorate the kinds of oppression and discrimination they suffer.
Gay Liberation Front
Formed soon after the Stonewall Riots of 1969, the short-lived but influential Gay Liberation Front brought a new militancy to the movement that became known as gay liberation.
Congratulations to Brazil
Posted by: Claude J. Summers on 05/14/13
Last updated on: 05/14/13
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A 14-1 decision by the National Council of Justice announced on May 14, 2013 has extended marriage equality throughout Brazil. The decision requires registrars throughout the country to marry same-sex couples and to convert civil unions to full-fledged marriages without the need for judicial orders. Brazil thus has become the 14th--and most populous--nation to extend equal marriage rights to all its gay and lesbian citizens.

As reported by Mariana Oliveira in O Globo, the decision, written by the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, gives effect to the landmark ruling of May 4, 2011. Then Brazil's highest court, on a 10-0 vote, with one abstention, ruled that partners in a "stable" same-sex union had the same legal rights as a heterosexual married couple. "Discrimination generates hatred," wrote Justice Carlos Ayres Britto.

The 2011 ruling meant that Brazilian same-sex couples are entitled to retirement, inheritance, and health benefits on the same basis as married couples, as well as other rights, including the right to adopt children.

In response to the landmark 2011 ruling, judges throughout the country began converting civil unions into full-fledged marriages, following an existing procedure for converting common-law marriages into legal marriages.

However, until the decision released on May 14, 2013, only in thirteen states and the Federal District were same-sex couples able to marry in registry offices without requiring judicial intervention. The states in which same-sex couples could marry in the same way as heterosexual couples encompassed more than 60% of the nation's population.

The decision issued on May 14, 2013 makes clear that notaries and other officials may not refuse to issue marriage licenses to same-sex couples. It comes as the result of a request for clarification by Congressman Jean Wyllys, who represents Rio in Brazil's House of Deputies.

In the video below, from 2011, Brazilian same-sex couples marry as a result of the Supreme Court's landmark ruling.

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