The works of García Lorca, internationally recognized as Spain's most prominent lyric poet and dramatist of the twentieth century, are filled with thinly veiled homosexual motifs and themes.
There has always been homosexual involvement in American musical theatre and a homosexual sensibility even in straight musicals, and recently the Broadway musical has welcomed openly homosexual themes and situations.
Best known for his genius in art and architecture, Michelangelo was also an accomplished author of homoerotic poetry.
The African-American gay male literary tradition consists of a substantial body of texts and includes some of the most gifted writers of the twentieth century.
Combining elements of incongruity, theatricality, and exaggeration, camp is a form of humor that helps homosexuals cope with a hostile environment.
Langston Hughes, whose literary legacy is enormous and varied, was closeted, but homosexuality was an important influence on his literary imagination, and many of his poems may be read as gay texts.
James Baldwin, a pioneering figure in twentieth-century literature, wrote sustained and articulate challenges to American racism and mandatory heterosexuality.
Oscar Wilde is important both as an accomplished writer and as a symbolic figure who exemplified a way of being homosexual at a pivotal moment in the emergence of gay consciousness.
In a surprise move by the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit on July 28, 2013, the stay on Judge Vaughn Walker's historic decision declaring Proposition 8 unconstitutional was lifted and same-sex marriages in California quickly resumed. The plaintiffs in the lawsuit challenging Proposition 8 in federal court were the first couples to be married.
Two days after the U.S. Supreme Court declared that the proponents of Proposition 8 lacked standing to appeal Judge Walker's decision, the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals lifted the stay on his order that invalidated Proposition 8.
Although the Ninth Circuit could have waited up to 25 days to act, Governor Jerry Brown had directed the state's 58 counties to resume issuing marriage licences to same-sex couples as soon as the stay was lifted.
After the Court's action on June 28, Brown declared that same-sex marriage "is now legal in California" and that marriage licenses must be issued "immediately."
The first same-sex marriage following the Court's action occurred in San Francisco just before 5:00 p.m. One of the two couples who challenged Prop. 8, Kris Perry and Sandy Stier, received their license at 4:15 p.m.
Attorney General Kamala Harris went to City Hall to perform the nuptials.
After Harris said, "I now declare you spouses for life," the hastily assembled crowd burst into raucous cheers.
"We've waited so long," Stier said. "It's a great day for us, for San Francisco, for the United States."
After the brief ceremony Harris said "this is about the long struggle for civil rights. I applaud the Ninth Circuit for acting so quickly."
The other plaintiffs in the landmark lawsuit, Paul Katami and Jeffrey Zarrillo, were married in Los Angeles an hour later by Mayor Villaraigosa.
In his declaration Friday, Governor Brown also said that registered domestic partners in California could be issued a marriage license. Additionally, he said that same-sex couples legally married in another jurisdiction "will be considered already legally married under California marriage licensing and certification laws and they should not be issued a new marriage license."
The resumption of same-sex marriage in the nation's largest state has energized the annual Pride celebrations in California and throughout the nation.