The sexual revolution of post-World War II America changed sexual and gender roles profoundly.
With reports from hundreds of sub-Saharan African locales of male-male sexual relations and from about fifty of female-female sexual relations, it is clear that same-sex sexual relations existed in traditional African societies, though varying in forms and in the degree of public acceptance
In British law, Section 28 of the Local Government Act, enforced from 1988 until 2003, prohibited the promotion of homosexuality and teaching the acceptability of homosexuality as a "pretended family relationship".
The Hijras--men who dress and act like women--have been a presence in India for generations, maintaining a third-gender role that has become institutionalized through tradition.
The dominant ideology among politicized lesbians during the 1970s and 1980s, Lesbian Feminism was based on the premise that lesbianism and feminism were inextricably linked.
Harvey Milk, among the first openly gay man to be elected to public office in the United States, was assassinated in San Francisco's City Hall, making him the American gay liberation movement's most visible martyr.
By the early twentieth-century, YMCAs had become popular havens for men who sought sex with other men.
Compulsory heterosexuality is the assumption that women and men are innately attracted to each other emotionally and sexually and that heterosexuality is universal, a view that leads to an institutional inequality of power that privileges heterosexual males and denigrates women, especially lesbians.
On October 22, 2012, Ellen DeGeneres was presented the nation's most prestigious award for comedy, the Mark Twain Prize for American Humor, at the John F. Kennedy Center Concert Hall in Washington, D.C. The ceremony will be broadcast on PBS on October 30, 2012.
At the star-studded event, DeGeneres was recognized not only for her unique comedy, but also for her groundbreaking move of coming out as a lesbian on television in 1997.
Previous Mark Twain Prize recipient Lily Tomlin said of DeGeneres, "She went from stand-up to standing for something."
She was similarly praised as a trailblazer by Sean Hayes and Jane Lynch. Among other performers lauding DeGeneres were Jimmy Kimmel, Kristin Chenowith, and Jason Mraz.
"I just want to make people happy and make people laugh," DeGeneres said on the red carpet before the show.
In making the announcement that DeGeneres had been chosen for the prestigious award, Kennedy Center Chairman David M. Rubenstein said that "The Kennedy Center is happy to recognize Ellen DeGeneres' unique contributions to the world of comedy. Through her television programs, stand-up appearances, movies, and even commercials, her special brand of humor has allowed us to find hilarity in the mundane and has kept us laughing for years."
Upon learning she would receive the Mark Twain Prize, Ellen DeGeneres remarked, "It's such an honor to receive the Mark Twain Prize. To get the same award that has been given to people like Bill Cosby, Tina Fey and Will Ferrell, it really makes me wonder . . . why didn't I get this sooner?"
According to the Kennedy Center website, "The Mark Twain Prize recognizes people who have had an impact on American society in ways similar to the distinguished nineteenth-century novelist and essayist best known as Mark Twain. As a social commentator, satirist, and creator of characters, Samuel Clemens was a fearless observer of society, who startled many while delighting and informing many more with his uncompromising perspective of social injustice and personal folly. He revealed the great truth of humor when he said 'against the assault of laughter nothing can stand.'"
The first Kennedy Center Mark Twain Prize for American Humor was presented to comedian Richard Pryor on October 20, 1998. The first two years of The Mark Twain Prize were taped and broadcast on Comedy Central. Since then, the award presentations have been taped for broadcast on PBS. The format of the ceremony is a celebration of the recipient's work by her peers and colleagues.
Other recipients of the award are the following: Jonathan Winters (1999), Carl Reiner (2000), Whoopi Goldberg (2001), Bob Newhart (2002), Lily Tomlin (2003), Lorne Michaels (2004), Steve Martin (2005), Neil Simon (2006), Billy Crystal (2007), George Carlin (2008), Bill Cosby (2009), Tina Fey (2010), and Will Ferrell (2011).
DeGeneres began her career in local comedy clubs in her hometown of New Orleans, which led to national recognition in 1982 when her videotaped club performances won Showtime's "Funniest Person In America" honor. In 1986, she became the first female comedian to be summoned by Johnny Carson to sit down with him after her performance on the Tonight Show.
DeGeneres gained national fame by starring in her sitcom Ellen. Running from 1994 to 1998, the show garnered record ratings, with DeGeneres receiving Emmy nominations each season in the Best Actress category. In 1997, DeGeneres was the recipient of the coveted Peabody Award as well as earning an Emmy for writing the critically acclaimed "Puppy Episode" when her character came out as a lesbian to a record 46 million viewers. DeGeneres followed with the CBS sitcom, The Ellen Show, which ran from 2001 to 2002.
In the course of producing and starring in Ellen, DeGeneres received numerous accolades including The People's Choice Award in 1995, two Golden Globe nominations, and two Screen Actors Guild nominations.
Her talk show, The Ellen DeGeneres Show recently began its tenth season. The show has won dozens of Daytime Emmy Awards. Additionally, DeGeneres has won 12 People's Choice Awards and most recently, the Teen Choice Award for "Choice Comedian" for a third consecutive year. The show has also won two Genesis Awards and a GLAAD Media Award for "Outstanding Talk Show Episode."
DeGeneres has been an outspoken advocate of equal rights for glbtq people, campaigning for marriage equality and speaking out against the bullying of gay youth.
She is also known for her random acts of kindness, some of which are directed toward those who stand up for equal rights and for those who have been bullied. I have blogged about these acts of kindness here and here.
In the MetroWeekly video below, celebrities including Lily Tomlin, Jane Lynch, Steve Harvey, Jimmy Kimmel, Kristin Chenoweth, and Ellen DeGeneres speak with editor-in-chief Randy Shulman.
Accompanied by her wife Portia Di Rossi, DeGeneres remarks that although her coming out on television "helped a lot of people," she did it selfishly: "I did it because I didn't want to live in shame anymore. I wanted to free myself from all that self-hatred and realized that that was heavy to carry around."