Although few gay actors have been permitted the luxury of openness, many of them have challenged and helped reconfigure notions of masculinity and, to a lesser extent, of homosexuality.
Lesbian actresses have played a significant role in Hollywood, but their contributions have rarely been recognized or spoken of openly; the "lavender marriage" is by no means a relic of the past.
Considering the unique set of problems facing lesbians who want to produce erotic art for the enjoyment of other lesbians, it is remarkable that so much lesbian erotica has been produced in so brief a time.
Olympian Brian Orser, known for both his athleticism and artistry, led a resurgence of Canada as a force to be reckoned with in men's figure skating; after being outed in a palimony suit, he has become an advocate for glbtq rights.
Although American gay film icon Brad Davis has been described as "the first heterosexual actor to die of AIDS," he was widely known as bisexual within the entertainment community.
Handsome, athletic, graceful, and charismatic, actor Errol Flynn was widely rumored to enjoy sexual relations with men as well as women.
In nineteenth-century America men who loved other men often suffered from guilt, but artists such as Winslow Homer and Thomas Eakins celebrated male camaraderie and affection, while expatriate John Singer Sargent depicted the dandy, and photographs documented male friendships.
An artistic movement that grew out of Dadaism and flourished in Europe shortly after World War I, Surrealism embraced the idea that art was an expression of the subconscious.
Shumlin administered the oath of office to Robinson in a ceremony before a crowd of about 150 family, friends, and colleagues. He praised her intelligence, energy, and commitment to justice.
"My pledge is to remember the people," Robinson told the crowd, noting that she has a love for legal interpretation but came to understand that legal cases are primarily about people.
Among those people, she said, were the plaintiffs in the Baker case, in which Robinson argued that same-sex couples had the same rights as heterosexual married couples. The crowd included two of the plaintiffs--Holly Puterbaugh and Lois Farnham--as well as others who worked with Robinson in the struggle to pass the civil union bill and then the same-sex marriage bill.
Also among the crowd was Robinson's wife Kym Boyman. The couple entered into a civil union in 2001 and married in 2010. Robinson's parents and her brother also attended the ceremony.
Governor Shumlin was leader of the state Senate when both the civil union and same-sex marriage bills were passed. When he became governor this year, he named Robinson his legal counsel. In October, he nominated her for the vacancy created in August by the retirement of Justice Denise Johnson, the Court's first woman justice.
At the ceremony at the Supreme Court on November 28, Shumlin said he was honored to nominate the first openly gay justice to the Court.
He noted that when the Baker decision came down, then-Governor Howard Dean remarked that the decision made him uncomfortable. "It was a different world just 12 years ago," Shumlin said. "We've come a long way, most of it because of Beth's work."
As head of the Vermont Freedom to Marry Task Force, Robinson tirelessly lobbied members of the legislature to vote in favor of equal rights. She helped mobilize support for those who voted for civil unions and, then, for marriage equality.
With Robinson's appointment, there are now six openly gay state supreme court justices. The other five are Rives Kistler and Virginia Linder of Oregon; Barbara Lenk of Massachusetts; Sabrina McKenna of Hawaii; and Monica Marquez of Colorado.
Here are YouTube videos of Shumlin announcing the appointment of Robinson to the Supreme Court and her reaction to that announcement: