The works of García Lorca, internationally recognized as Spain's most prominent lyric poet and dramatist of the twentieth century, are filled with thinly veiled homosexual motifs and themes.
There has always been homosexual involvement in American musical theatre and a homosexual sensibility even in straight musicals, and recently the Broadway musical has welcomed openly homosexual themes and situations.
Best known for his genius in art and architecture, Michelangelo was also an accomplished author of homoerotic poetry.
The African-American gay male literary tradition consists of a substantial body of texts and includes some of the most gifted writers of the twentieth century.
Combining elements of incongruity, theatricality, and exaggeration, camp is a form of humor that helps homosexuals cope with a hostile environment.
Langston Hughes, whose literary legacy is enormous and varied, was closeted, but homosexuality was an important influence on his literary imagination, and many of his poems may be read as gay texts.
James Baldwin, a pioneering figure in twentieth-century literature, wrote sustained and articulate challenges to American racism and mandatory heterosexuality.
Oscar Wilde is important both as an accomplished writer and as a symbolic figure who exemplified a way of being homosexual at a pivotal moment in the emergence of gay consciousness.
Shumlin administered the oath of office to Robinson in a ceremony before a crowd of about 150 family, friends, and colleagues. He praised her intelligence, energy, and commitment to justice.
"My pledge is to remember the people," Robinson told the crowd, noting that she has a love for legal interpretation but came to understand that legal cases are primarily about people.
Among those people, she said, were the plaintiffs in the Baker case, in which Robinson argued that same-sex couples had the same rights as heterosexual married couples. The crowd included two of the plaintiffs--Holly Puterbaugh and Lois Farnham--as well as others who worked with Robinson in the struggle to pass the civil union bill and then the same-sex marriage bill.
Also among the crowd was Robinson's wife Kym Boyman. The couple entered into a civil union in 2001 and married in 2010. Robinson's parents and her brother also attended the ceremony.
Governor Shumlin was leader of the state Senate when both the civil union and same-sex marriage bills were passed. When he became governor this year, he named Robinson his legal counsel. In October, he nominated her for the vacancy created in August by the retirement of Justice Denise Johnson, the Court's first woman justice.
At the ceremony at the Supreme Court on November 28, Shumlin said he was honored to nominate the first openly gay justice to the Court.
He noted that when the Baker decision came down, then-Governor Howard Dean remarked that the decision made him uncomfortable. "It was a different world just 12 years ago," Shumlin said. "We've come a long way, most of it because of Beth's work."
As head of the Vermont Freedom to Marry Task Force, Robinson tirelessly lobbied members of the legislature to vote in favor of equal rights. She helped mobilize support for those who voted for civil unions and, then, for marriage equality.
With Robinson's appointment, there are now six openly gay state supreme court justices. The other five are Rives Kistler and Virginia Linder of Oregon; Barbara Lenk of Massachusetts; Sabrina McKenna of Hawaii; and Monica Marquez of Colorado.
Here are YouTube videos of Shumlin announcing the appointment of Robinson to the Supreme Court and her reaction to that announcement: