The sexual revolution of post-World War II America changed sexual and gender roles profoundly.
With reports from hundreds of sub-Saharan African locales of male-male sexual relations and from about fifty of female-female sexual relations, it is clear that same-sex sexual relations existed in traditional African societies, though varying in forms and in the degree of public acceptance
In British law, Section 28 of the Local Government Act, enforced from 1988 until 2003, prohibited the promotion of homosexuality and teaching the acceptability of homosexuality as a "pretended family relationship".
The Hijras--men who dress and act like women--have been a presence in India for generations, maintaining a third-gender role that has become institutionalized through tradition.
The dominant ideology among politicized lesbians during the 1970s and 1980s, Lesbian Feminism was based on the premise that lesbianism and feminism were inextricably linked.
Harvey Milk, among the first openly gay man to be elected to public office in the United States, was assassinated in San Francisco's City Hall, making him the American gay liberation movement's most visible martyr.
By the early twentieth-century, YMCAs had become popular havens for men who sought sex with other men.
Compulsory heterosexuality is the assumption that women and men are innately attracted to each other emotionally and sexually and that heterosexuality is universal, a view that leads to an institutional inequality of power that privileges heterosexual males and denigrates women, especially lesbians.
Houston Mayor Annise Parker.
Congratulations to Mayor Annise Parker who won re-election on November 8, 2011. Other glbtq candidates also won election to municipal councils and state legislatures and other offices on November 8.
According to the Gay and Lesbian Victory Fund, 53 of the 75 candidates endorsed by the organization were victorious in their races.
In Houston, Mayor Parker received more than 50% of the vote, thus avoiding a run-off. Her nearest competitor in the five-candidate field received less than 15% of the tally.
In other mayoral races, twenty-two-year-old Alex Morse won his race for mayor of Holyoke, Massachusetts, while Bryan Harris was elected mayor of Chatham Borough, New Jersey, likely becoming the nation's first openly gay, African-American Republican mayor. In addition, Daryl Finizio won election as mayor of New London, Connecticut; Pedro Segarra was re-elected mayor of Hartford, Connecticut; Steve Pougnet was re-elected mayor of Palm Springs, California with 70% of the vote; and Mark Kleinschmidt was re-elected mayor of Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
Voters in several major cities have elected the first openly gay or lesbian members of their city councils: Mike Laster in Houston; Zach Adamson in Indianapolis; Robin Kniech in Denver; LaWana Mayfield in Charlotte; and Chris Seelbach in Cincinnati.
In addition, lesbian Caitlin Copple won a seat on the Missoula, Montana city council, defeating an incumbent who voted against a non-discrimination ordinance; while openly gay Ryan Mello was elected to the Tacoma, Washington city council; Michael Smith defeated an anti-gay incumbent to win election to the Largo, Florida city council; Lee Storrow won his quest for a seat on the Chapel Hill, North Carolina city council; Rick Hutcheson was re-elected to the Palm Springs, California council; and Lydia Lavelle was re-elected to the Carrboro, North Carolina city council.
In Virginia, Adam Ebbin, who had served in the House of Delegates, won election to become the state's first openly gay state senator. In New Jersey, Tim Eustace, mayor of Maywood, becomes the second openly gay member of the state Assembly, joining Assemblymember Reed Gusciora, who won re-election.
In Arizona, Daniel Hernandez, Jr., the intern who helped save the life of Representative Gabrielle Giffords, was elected to the Pima County school board. In Minnesota, Mary Doran won election to the St. Paul school board.
In a pivotal race, Iowa voters elected Democrat Liz Mathis, a glbtq-ally, to an open state senate seat, thus preserving the narrow Democratic majority in the senate and preventing a referendum on marriage equality in Iowa. Mathis defeated her opponent, who was heavily supported by the National Organization for Marriage, by a margin of 56% to 44%.
Voters in Traverse City, Michigan retained a glbtq-inclusive anti-discrimination ordinance by a 2-to-1 margin.
It appears that Bevan Dufty has lost his bid to become the first openly gay mayor of San Francisco.
Although not on the ballot on November 8, 2011, the four openly gay members of the United States House of Representatives--Barney Frank (Massachusetts), Tammy Baldwin (Wisconsin), Jared Polis (Colorado), and David Cicilline (Rhode Island)--have issued an "It Gets Better" video.