With reports from hundreds of sub-Saharan African locales of male-male sexual relations and from about fifty of female-female sexual relations, it is clear that same-sex sexual relations existed in traditional African societies, though varying in forms and in the degree of public acceptance
The confrontations between police and demonstrators at the Stonewall Inn in New York City the weekend of June 27-29, 1969 mark the beginning of the modern glbtq movement for equal rights.
A social role for individuals who crossed or mixed male and female characteristics was one of the most widely distributed institutions of native North America.
The sexual revolution of post-World War II America changed sexual and gender roles profoundly.
Mixed-orientation marriages--those in which one partner is straight and the other is gay or lesbian--often end in divorce, but such an ending is not inevitable.
"Leather" is a blanket term for a large array of sexual preferences, identities, relationship structures, and social organizations loosely tied together by the thread of what is conventionally understood as sadomasochistic sex.
Since the late nineteenth century, transgendered people have advocated legal and social reforms that would ameliorate the kinds of oppression and discrimination they suffer.
Formed soon after the Stonewall Riots of 1969, the short-lived but influential Gay Liberation Front brought a new militancy to the movement that became known as gay liberation.
Two young men discuss rising homophobia during the marriage debate.
On April 23, 2013, France's National Assembly decisively passed marriage equality legislation on final reading, 331-225. The historic vote came in the midst of heightened tension and escalating violence on the part of anti-gay opponents of equal rights. Barring a ruling by the Constitutional Council, France will be the 14th nation to extend marriage rights to all of its same-sex couples.
In advance of the vote, Paris police stationed scores of officers and a small battery of water cannons at the National Assembly in order to prevent a repeat of the street violence that has characterized some of the demonstrations against marriage equality. Increased police patrols were also ordered for the city's predominantly gay neighborhoods.
In addition to several highly publicized attacks on gay couples and on gay bars, Socialist deputies have been threatened as a result of their support of equal marriage rights.
Claude Bartolone, the president of the National Assembly, received a threatening letter containing gunpowder. The letter echoed the threat made earlier by Frigide Barjot, the leader of the anti-gay group Manif pour Tous, who said that President Hollande "wants blood" and promised that "He will get it."
Shortly before the vote was taken, a protest broke out in the National Assembly gallery. Bartolene ordered the protesters removed, describing them as "enemies of democracy."
Joe Morgan and Dan Littauer report in Gay Star News that President François Hollande has 15 days to sign the bill into law, though opponents are likely to mount a last-minute appeal to the Constitutional Council. It is believed that such an appeal will not succeed, though it may have the effect of delaying Hollande's signing marriage equality into law by a month.
Dominique Bertinotti, Minister for Family, said that "Even in the event of an appeal to the Constitutional Council, we can consider that [marriage equality] will become law in late June."
On his blog, French gay activist Nicolas Chinadret described the vote as a "natural, if overdue, step forward for France," but added, "it is very sad and somewhat shameful that the country of human rights had to be the one with the most virulent opposition to the move."
"The violence both physical and verbal that we've witnessed have created real wounds that will take much time and effort to be healed."
The news video below reports on the marriage debate and homophobic violence in France.
In the following clip National Assembly President Bartolone orders disruptive protesters removed from the gallery as the vote is about to proceed.
The video below captures the moment that the vote is announced to the cheers of the delegates and vistors.