Straight men who have sex with men do so for a number of reasons, but in general such activity is about physical release and sexual behaviors, not about attraction or desire for another man.
Transgender people--more specifically, people who were born male but present themselves as female--are Brazil's single most marginalized group.
Although best known for her crusade for women's suffrage, Susan B. Anthony spoke out on a range of feminist issues.
Cross-dressers have often been misunderstood and maligned, especially in societies with rigid gender roles.
The homosexuality of Frederick the Great of Prussia was an open secret during his reign, yet some historians have attempted to deny it or to diminish its significance.
Butch-femme identities are controversial and difficult to define with precision, but both roles subvert prescribed gender and sexual expectations; ultimately, the butch-femme dynamic is a unique way of living and loving.
Compulsory heterosexuality is the assumption that women and men are innately attracted to each other emotionally and sexually and that heterosexuality is universal, a view that leads to an institutional inequality of power that privileges heterosexual males and denigrates women, especially lesbians.
The lesbian "sex wars" of the 1980s, centered on issues of pornography and s/m, constituted one of the most significant debates among second-wave feminists in North America and Europe.
California's new law comes on the heels of six-year-old Coy Mathis' family's court victory in Colorado.
On August 12, 2013, Governor Jerry Brown signed into law a bill that requires public schools in California to allow transgender students access to sports teams, locker rooms, and bathrooms based on their gender identity regardless of their birth gender.
The law gives students the right to participate in sex-segregated sports and to participate in sex-segregated programs, activities, and facilities according to their gender identity rather than the gender indicated on their birth certificates.
The law, designated AB1266, was authored by Democratic Assemblyman Tom Ammiano of San Francisco.
As Tom Verdin of San Jose Mercury News reports, "Supporters said it will help reduce bullying and discrimination against transgender students. It comes as the families of transgender students have been waging local battles with school districts across the country over what restrooms and locker rooms their children can use, disagreements that have sometimes landed in court."
The bill was supported by the National Center for Lesbian Rights and the ACLU of California.
Detractors, including some Republican lawmakers, said allowing students of one gender to use facilities intended for the other could invade the other students' privacy.
Such fears were dismissed by Carlos Alcala, spokesman for Ammiano, who said that transgender students are trying to blend in and are not trying to call attention to themselves.
"They're not interested in going into bathrooms and flaunting their physiology," Alcala said.
He added, "Clearly, there are some parents who are not going to like it. We are hopeful school districts will work with them so no students are put in an uncomfortable position."
California's largest school district, Los Angeles Unified, has had such a policy for nearly a decade, as have San Francisco schools. Other districts signed on in support of the legislation.
Statewide policies in two states, Massachusetts and Connecticut, grant the same protections as AB1266, but California is the first to put them into statute.
Brown's signing AB1266 into law comes on the heels of an important ruling by the Colorado Division of Civil Rights, which found that a suburban Colorado Springs school district discriminated against a 6-year-old transgender girl by preventing her from using the girls' bathroom.
In that case, the parents of Coy Mathis filed suit after school officials at Eagleside Elementary in Fountain, Colorado said the first-grader could use restrooms in either the teachers' lounge or in the nurse's office, but not the girls' bathroom. Coy's parents feared she would be stigmatized and bullied.
Following the ruling handed down on June 24, 2013, Kathryn Mathis, the mother of the six-year-old Coy, said, "Her future will be better if we get to this place where this is nothing to be ashamed of."
The video below reports on the ruling in the Coy Mathis case.
The California bill is discussed in the following video.