The sexual revolution of post-World War II America changed sexual and gender roles profoundly.
With reports from hundreds of sub-Saharan African locales of male-male sexual relations and from about fifty of female-female sexual relations, it is clear that same-sex sexual relations existed in traditional African societies, though varying in forms and in the degree of public acceptance
In British law, Section 28 of the Local Government Act, enforced from 1988 until 2003, prohibited the promotion of homosexuality and teaching the acceptability of homosexuality as a "pretended family relationship".
The Hijras--men who dress and act like women--have been a presence in India for generations, maintaining a third-gender role that has become institutionalized through tradition.
The dominant ideology among politicized lesbians during the 1970s and 1980s, Lesbian Feminism was based on the premise that lesbianism and feminism were inextricably linked.
Harvey Milk, among the first openly gay man to be elected to public office in the United States, was assassinated in San Francisco's City Hall, making him the American gay liberation movement's most visible martyr.
By the early twentieth-century, YMCAs had become popular havens for men who sought sex with other men.
Compulsory heterosexuality is the assumption that women and men are innately attracted to each other emotionally and sexually and that heterosexuality is universal, a view that leads to an institutional inequality of power that privileges heterosexual males and denigrates women, especially lesbians.
Happy Mother's Day 2012 to all mothers, gay and straight, dead and alive. As we remember our mothers today, our emotions may run the gamut. If our mothers are no longer with us, today may be a painful day. If our mothers failed to be supportive, the day can also call up decidedly mixed emotions. Still, today is a day to remember our mothers, especially those who have supported and nurtured us.
Today I think especially of mothers like Jeanne Manford, who was so appalled at the failure of the police to protect her gay activist son when he was assaulted that she, along with her husband, began marching in gay pride parades and took action to found the international support organization, Parents, Families and Friends of Lesbians and Gays (PFLAG).
Or Judy Shepard who was also hurt into activism. She was transformed by the devastating loss of her beloved son into a crusader against hatred.
For those of us who have lost our mothers, Mother's Day is always complex, as explained in a beautiful column by Frank Bruni in the New York Times.
Some of us have lesbian mothers and some of us are lucky enough to have two lesbian mothers, as videos by Orlando Pride and by Zach Wahls remind us.
Finally, President Obama issued a powerful video celebrating mothers.