The sexual revolution of post-World War II America changed sexual and gender roles profoundly.
With reports from hundreds of sub-Saharan African locales of male-male sexual relations and from about fifty of female-female sexual relations, it is clear that same-sex sexual relations existed in traditional African societies, though varying in forms and in the degree of public acceptance
In British law, Section 28 of the Local Government Act, enforced from 1988 until 2003, prohibited the promotion of homosexuality and teaching the acceptability of homosexuality as a "pretended family relationship".
The Hijras--men who dress and act like women--have been a presence in India for generations, maintaining a third-gender role that has become institutionalized through tradition.
The dominant ideology among politicized lesbians during the 1970s and 1980s, Lesbian Feminism was based on the premise that lesbianism and feminism were inextricably linked.
Harvey Milk, among the first openly gay man to be elected to public office in the United States, was assassinated in San Francisco's City Hall, making him the American gay liberation movement's most visible martyr.
By the early twentieth-century, YMCAs had become popular havens for men who sought sex with other men.
Compulsory heterosexuality is the assumption that women and men are innately attracted to each other emotionally and sexually and that heterosexuality is universal, a view that leads to an institutional inequality of power that privileges heterosexual males and denigrates women, especially lesbians.
Mark O'Donnell with his twin brother Steve.
Writer Mark O'Donnell, best known as co-author of the book of the Marc Shaiman-Scott Wittman musical, Hairspray (2003), which was based on the John Waters 1988 film, died in New York City on August 6, 2012. He collapsed and suffered cardiac arrest in front of his Riverside Drive building on Manhattan's Upper West Side.
A novelist as well as a playwright and librettist, O'Donnell also published humor in magazines such as Esquire, The New Yorker, and The Atlantic.
His novels include Getting Over Homer (1997) and Let Nothing You Dismay (1998), humorous but touching novels set in gay New York. They have sometimes been seen as reminiscent of Armistead Maupin's San Francisco-set Tales of the City. He is also author of a collection of humorous pieces, Vertigo and Other Tall Tales (1993).
O'Donnell, shared the 2003 Tony Award for Best Book of a Musical with Thomas Meehan, for their work on Hairspray. The pair also earned Tony nominations in 2008 for their book based on another John Waters film, Cry-Baby, with music by David Javerbaum and Adam Schlesinger.
Among O'Donnell's survivors is his twin brother Steve O'Donnell, also a comedy writer. As DNAinfo.com reports, the twins attended Harvard University, where they worked on the humor magazine, Harvard Lampoon.
In a recent interview in The Believer, the twins contrasted their careers. Steve O'Donnell, who is best known for his work as a writer on The David Letterman Show and The Jimmy Fallon Show, said, "I guess I think we should get to the more sensational aspect of our relationship--the fact that we're twin brothers from a large family of ten brothers and sisters, working-class Cleveland, offspring of a welder and a . . . homemaker, who were themselves the offspring of immigrants. And, that most profound as well as lurid portion of the equation, that you're gay and I'm straight. There's a carnival-act aspect to that, but it opens the doors to more profound questions. Nature versus nurture, environment versus heredity . . .all that stuff."
In a statement issued today, Steve O'Donnell said his brother was an "unusual, brilliant, playful spirit and he's going to be missed very much." In a telephone interview, he added, "I loved him more than any other person on earth. I think he'll be remembered for having a unique, inspired take on things that was both eternally wise and beautifully innocent."
In response to the news of O'Donnell's death, Marc Shaiman said, "Mark was a kind soul, a hysterical mind and the real hero of 'Hairspray.' His passing is shocking, our great loss, but heaven's gain."
In 2008, Steve O'Donnell made a video for the No on Proposition 8 campaign urging Californians to vote against the discriminatory amendment that prohibited same-sex marriage. In the video, he referenced the fact that his twin brother was his best friend and that they should enjoy equal rights.