The works of García Lorca, internationally recognized as Spain's most prominent lyric poet and dramatist of the twentieth century, are filled with thinly veiled homosexual motifs and themes.
There has always been homosexual involvement in American musical theatre and a homosexual sensibility even in straight musicals, and recently the Broadway musical has welcomed openly homosexual themes and situations.
Best known for his genius in art and architecture, Michelangelo was also an accomplished author of homoerotic poetry.
The African-American gay male literary tradition consists of a substantial body of texts and includes some of the most gifted writers of the twentieth century.
Combining elements of incongruity, theatricality, and exaggeration, camp is a form of humor that helps homosexuals cope with a hostile environment.
Langston Hughes, whose literary legacy is enormous and varied, was closeted, but homosexuality was an important influence on his literary imagination, and many of his poems may be read as gay texts.
James Baldwin, a pioneering figure in twentieth-century literature, wrote sustained and articulate challenges to American racism and mandatory heterosexuality.
Oscar Wilde is important both as an accomplished writer and as a symbolic figure who exemplified a way of being homosexual at a pivotal moment in the emergence of gay consciousness.
Acclaimed French director, screenwriter, and actor Patrice Chéreau, who earned international renown for his visionary, often controversial, productions of opera, theater, and film, died on October 7, 2013 of complications from lung cancer.
Chéreau first captured attention for his daring work as a director of operas and plays. The film adaptation of Alexandre Dumas's historical novel Queen Margot (La Reine Margot, 1994) established Chéreau as a leading cinema director as well, though his first film, La Chair de l'Orchidée (The Flesh of the Orchid, 1975), earned him two César (French Academy Award) nominations.
He directed his first professional play when he was 19; it was so successful that he abandoned his studies at the Sorbonne to pursue a career in theater. He was celebrated as a theater prodigy and soon became associated with important European theaters.
Although he directed his first opera in 1966, the operatic productions that established him as an international opera director were his interpretations of Wagner's Ring tetralogy for the one hundredth anniversary of the Bayreuth Festival, 1976-1980. Recruited by conductor Pierre Boulez, Chéreau's version of the operas moved the action to the Industrial Revolution of the nineteenth century, framing realistic details within an hyperrealist context that challenged their verisimilitude and made them part of a psychic landscape.
Although the productions angered Wagner purists--there were near riots at Bayreuth--they are now regarded as classics. Chéreau's mise-en-scène became an important point of reference for directors interested less in literal adaptations than in avant-garde transpositions in an attempt to render dated operas relevant to modern sensibility.
In his films, which include Wounded Man (L'homme blessé, 1983), Those Who Love Me Can Take the Train (Ceux qui m'aiment prendront le train, 1998), Intimacy (2001), His Brother (Son Frère, 2003), Gabrielle (2005), and Persecution (2009), Chéreau often features intense portrayals of gay men and homosexual relationships.
As Luca Prono observes in his glbtq.com entry, "Chéreau's films reveal a particular concern for the representation of human bodies, not as idealized objects of beauty, but as graphically mired in their imperfect physicality and sexuality."
Chéreau repeatedly said that being gay affected him as an artist, though he failed to specify exactly in what ways. He also stressed that he never wanted to specialize in gay stories. Instead, he claimed to be interested in the general theme of desire and how it affects people. The experience of desire, Chéreau insisted, is strikingly similar for heterosexuals and homosexuals.
For many years, Chéreau maintained a romantic relationship with actor Pascal Greggory, whom he directed in several films and plays.
He is survived by a brother.
In the video below, Chéreau discusses his film Persecution.