Although gay, lesbian, and queer theory are related practices, the three terms delineate separate emphases marked by different assumptions about the relationship between gender and sexuality.
The Harlem Renaissance, an African-American literary movement of the 1920s and 1930s, included several important gay and lesbian writers.
Oscar Wilde is important both as an accomplished writer and as a symbolic figure who exemplified a way of being homosexual at a pivotal moment in the emergence of gay consciousness.
Langston Hughes, whose literary legacy is enormous and varied, was closeted, but homosexuality was an important influence on his literary imagination, and many of his poems may be read as gay texts.
Conflicted over his own sexuality, Tennessee Williams wrote directly about homosexuality only in his short stories, his poetry, and his late plays.
Erotic and pornographic works have been written in many cultures since ancient times and recently have flourished with the relaxation of censorship.
Feminist literary theory is a complex, dynamic area of study that draws from a wide range of critical theories.
James Baldwin, a pioneering figure in twentieth-century literature, wrote sustained and articulate challenges to American racism and mandatory heterosexuality.
From 2003 to 2009, she served as executive direction of the International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission. She had previously served as the legal director at Lambda Legal Defense and Educational Fund, policy director at the National Center for Lesbian Rights, legislative counsel for the Empire State Pride Agenda, and family policy director at the Policy Institute of the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force. Tributes to Ettelbrick have extolled her for her leadership qualities and dedication to the cause of equal rights.
A statement from the Gay Men's Health Crisis describes her as "Beautiful, articulate, smart and hard-hitting . . . . We will miss her fierceness, eloquence and graciousness. We send our tender thoughts to all the members of her family, chosen and biological, as well as all those who have been touched by Paula's life and work."
She is survived by her partner Marianne Haggerty and two children--Adam Ettelbrick and Julia Ettelbrick--as well as a brother and a sister. See Longtime LGBT Rights Icon Paula Ettlebrick Has Died.