Although gay, lesbian, and queer theory are related practices, the three terms delineate separate emphases marked by different assumptions about the relationship between gender and sexuality.
The Harlem Renaissance, an African-American literary movement of the 1920s and 1930s, included several important gay and lesbian writers.
Oscar Wilde is important both as an accomplished writer and as a symbolic figure who exemplified a way of being homosexual at a pivotal moment in the emergence of gay consciousness.
Langston Hughes, whose literary legacy is enormous and varied, was closeted, but homosexuality was an important influence on his literary imagination, and many of his poems may be read as gay texts.
Conflicted over his own sexuality, Tennessee Williams wrote directly about homosexuality only in his short stories, his poetry, and his late plays.
Erotic and pornographic works have been written in many cultures since ancient times and recently have flourished with the relaxation of censorship.
Feminist literary theory is a complex, dynamic area of study that draws from a wide range of critical theories.
James Baldwin, a pioneering figure in twentieth-century literature, wrote sustained and articulate challenges to American racism and mandatory heterosexuality.
British MP and Minister of State at the Foreign and Commonwealth Office announces U.K. support for the International Day against Homophobia and Transphobia in 2011.
May 17 is celebrated as the International Day against Homophobia and Transphobia, an annual event organized by the Canadian glbtq group Fondation Émergence. The observance may be traced to 2003, when June 4 was designated as a Canadian National Day against Homophobia. As other countries evinced interest in celebrating a day against homophobia, May 17 was chosen as an appropriate date, since that was the day in 1990 that the World Health Organization removed homosexuality from its list of mental disorders.
A human rights conference held in connection with the first world Outgames in Montréal in the summer of 2006 adopted the "Declaration of Montréal," whose final recommendation "calls on all the countries in the world, and the United Nations, to recognize and promote the 17th of May of each year as the International Day Against Homophobia."
Now organizations in more than 70 countries observe the International Day against Homophobia and Transphobia. It has been officially recognized by the European Union Parliament, Spain, Belgium, the United Kingdom, Mexico, Costa Rica, the Netherlands, France, Luxembourg, and Brazil, as well as by numerous local authorities across the world, such as the province of Quebec or the city of Buenos Aires.
In San Francisco, for example, the city's Board of Supervisors has passed a resolution officially recognizing the International Day against Homophobia and Transphobia. In addition, both the American flag and the United Nations flag will be lowered in honor of the day at the city's United Nations Plaza.
Laurent McCutcheon, president of Fondation Émergence, urges everyone to be involves in the fight against homophobia since homophobia affects all of us.
For a list of events and suggestions as to how to observe the International Day against Homophobia and Transphobia, visit Fondation Émergence's website.
In the video below, from 2011, the U.K. Foreign Office Minister Jeremy Browne declares the British Government's support for the International Day against Homophobia and Transphobia.