Langston Hughes, whose literary legacy is enormous and varied, was closeted, but homosexuality was an important influence on his literary imagination, and many of his poems may be read as gay texts.
The writers of the Beat Generation, many of whom were gay or bisexual, endorsed gay rights as a part of their rebellion against inhibition and self-censorship.
The Comedy of Manners, which flourished on the Restoration stage, has been particularly amenable to twentieth-century gay male writers as a vehicle for social satire in both dramatic and nondramatic works.
Using his and his family's experiences, particularly his childhood in Raleigh, North Carolina, and his own wacky perspective on life, David Sedaris has become a world-famous humorist, comedian, writer, playwright, and radio personality.
From the great modernist writers of the 1920s and 1930s to the pulp writers of the 1950s to the lesbian writers of today, lesbian novelists have had a powerful impact on the lesbian community.
From its beginning, the nineteenth century in England had a purposeful homosexual literature of considerable bulk, both male and female, though it was fettered by oppression.
Persecuted for his homosexuality by the Castro government he had once championed, Cuban novelist, essayist, and poet Reinaldo Arenas challenged all types of ideological dogmatism.
Baudelaire was among the first French poets to include lesbians as subjects.
Rene Portland. Photograph by Nathan A. Smith, courtesy trainingrules.com.
Legendary Penn State football coach Joe Paterno, recently fired for his role in covering up child-abuse by former Penn State assistant coach Jerry Sandusky, is also implicated in the scandal caused by former women's basketball coach Rene Portland's discrimination against lesbians.
According to Fawn Yacker, co-director with Dee Mosbacher of the award-winning documentary Training Rules (2009) about homophobia in Penn State's women's basketball program, Joe Paterno supported homophobic coach Rene Portland, whom he hired in the 1980s when he was the university's athletic director.
In a post at Outsports, Yacker states that Paterno "supported her even though she was open about her training rules--No drinking, No drugs, No lesbians. He supported her during student protests that were in response to the statements she made to the press in 1986 and 1991 stating her policies." He even referred to her as his "best hire."
Portland's homophobia was so notorious at Penn State that it finally became the center of a student-led campaign to force the university to adopt a non-discrimination policy, one that Paterno and then-President Joab Thomas opposed.
After several demonstrations against Portland and in favor of a non-discrimination policy, the faculty Senate finally acted and in effect forced a policy on the university in 1991.
At the time, Portland told an interviewer that she would reluctantly respect the new policy: "That is a policy I have to work under as an employee of the university. That's all I'll say about it."
However, as Training Rules documents, it is clear that Portland did not end her practice of discriminating against lesbians or those she perceived to be lesbian.
Training Rules tells the story of Jennifer Harris, whose suit against Penn State ultimately led to the resignation of Portland, an acclaimed and highly successful coach who made no secret of her homophobia.
In 2005, Harris, a premed sophomore, who had been one of the leading scorers on her team, was abruptly kicked off the squad by Portland. Harris suffered so many indignities as a result of this dismissal that she contemplated suicide.
But with the help of the National Center for Lesbian Rights, Harris decided to fight back in order to prevent other student athletes from suffering similar indignities. In 2006, she launched a lawsuit against Portland, athletic director Tim Curley, and Penn State, alleging discrimination on the basis of perceived sexual orientation, racism, and gender stereotyping.
With the announcement of the suit, other women athletes came forward to tell their stories of having been victimized through the years by Portland and the athletic programs at Penn State.
An internal university review of Harris's complaint found that Portland created a "hostile, intimidating, and offensive environment." Portland was fined $10,000, required to attend diversity training sessions, and placed on "zero tolerance" for future violations of Penn State's non-discrimination policy.
Penn State settled the suit under confidential terms and Portland subsequently resigned. Upon her resignation, Paterno said, "I think she's done a great job."
As Mosbacher has written, "Training Rules is a painful reminder that homophobia still exists in women's sports. The Penn State players featured in the film represent many others throughout the world of college athletics whose careers have been terminated because of homophobia."