The works of García Lorca, internationally recognized as Spain's most prominent lyric poet and dramatist of the twentieth century, are filled with thinly veiled homosexual motifs and themes.
There has always been homosexual involvement in American musical theatre and a homosexual sensibility even in straight musicals, and recently the Broadway musical has welcomed openly homosexual themes and situations.
Best known for his genius in art and architecture, Michelangelo was also an accomplished author of homoerotic poetry.
The African-American gay male literary tradition consists of a substantial body of texts and includes some of the most gifted writers of the twentieth century.
Combining elements of incongruity, theatricality, and exaggeration, camp is a form of humor that helps homosexuals cope with a hostile environment.
Langston Hughes, whose literary legacy is enormous and varied, was closeted, but homosexuality was an important influence on his literary imagination, and many of his poems may be read as gay texts.
James Baldwin, a pioneering figure in twentieth-century literature, wrote sustained and articulate challenges to American racism and mandatory heterosexuality.
Oscar Wilde is important both as an accomplished writer and as a symbolic figure who exemplified a way of being homosexual at a pivotal moment in the emergence of gay consciousness.
In a brief filed on February 22, 2013, the Department of Justice asked the Supreme Court of the United States to declare unconstitutional Section 3 of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA). In its brief arguing the merits in United States v. Windsor, the Justice Department said that "Section 3 of DOMA violates the fundamental constitutional guarantee of equal protection. The law denies to tens of thousands of same-sex couples who are legally married under state law an array of important federal benefits that are available to legally married opposite-sex couples. Because this discrimination cannot be justified as substantially furthering any important governmental interest, Section 3 is unconstitutional."
The brief, signed by Solicitor General Donald B. Verrilli and openly gay Principal Deputy Assistant Attorney General Stuart Delery, also asserts that laws impacting gay men and lesbians warrant "heightened scrutiny."
The government argues that "gay and lesbian people have suffered a significant history of discrimination in this country" and that "[t]he federal government, state and local governments, and private parties all have contributed to a regrettable history of discrimination against gay and lesbian people in a variety of contexts," ranging from employment and immigration discrimination to police raids of gay bars.
The Justice Department also cites the history of marriage referenda to buttress the argument of our relative political powerlessness. Pointing to the long string of defeats at the ballot box that have only recently been reversed, the brief notes that "Only six states, by comparison, have conferred marriage rights to same-sex couples through the political process; the other three have through judicial decision. That is not a convincing record of political power rendering protection unnecessary."
The brief disputes the rationalizations for DOMA proffered by the Bipartisan Legal Advisory Group, which is defending the constitutionality of DOMA on behalf of the House of Representatives. It also rejects BLAG's argument that the Court should "allow the democratic process to run its course."
Instead, it continues, "deference to the democratic process must give way to the fundamental constitutional command of equal treatment under law. Section 3 of DOMA targets the many gay and lesbian people legally married under state law for a harsh form of discrimination that bears no relation to their ability to contribute to society. It is abundantly clear that this discrimination does not substantially advance an interest in protecting marriage, or any other important interest. The statute simply cannot be reconciled with the Fifth Amendment's guarantee of equal protection. The Constitution therefore requires that Section 3 be invalidated."
The 67-page brief may be read in its entirety below.
In the video below, Lavi Solaway, founder of The DOMA Project appears on MSNBC to discuss the brief with Thomas Roberts.