The works of García Lorca, internationally recognized as Spain's most prominent lyric poet and dramatist of the twentieth century, are filled with thinly veiled homosexual motifs and themes.
There has always been homosexual involvement in American musical theatre and a homosexual sensibility even in straight musicals, and recently the Broadway musical has welcomed openly homosexual themes and situations.
Best known for his genius in art and architecture, Michelangelo was also an accomplished author of homoerotic poetry.
The African-American gay male literary tradition consists of a substantial body of texts and includes some of the most gifted writers of the twentieth century.
Combining elements of incongruity, theatricality, and exaggeration, camp is a form of humor that helps homosexuals cope with a hostile environment.
Langston Hughes, whose literary legacy is enormous and varied, was closeted, but homosexuality was an important influence on his literary imagination, and many of his poems may be read as gay texts.
James Baldwin, a pioneering figure in twentieth-century literature, wrote sustained and articulate challenges to American racism and mandatory heterosexuality.
Oscar Wilde is important both as an accomplished writer and as a symbolic figure who exemplified a way of being homosexual at a pivotal moment in the emergence of gay consciousness.
Gov. Jerry Brown.
New laws signed by Governor Jerry Brown on October 8, 2013 ease the difficulty of obtaining corrected documents by transgender individuals and extend fertility coverage to same-sex couples in California.
As the Associated Press reports, one of the bills signed into law by Governor Brown, AB460, clarifies the non-discrimination provision of an existing state law that requires health plans to offer coverage for fertility treatments, except for in vitro fertilization. The new law requires that same-sex couples be granted the same access to insurance coverage for fertility treatments as heterosexual couples.
Assemblyman Tom Ammiano, who sponsored the bill, said many same-sex couples have been denied the coverage. In praising Brown's signature on his bill, Ammiano said reproductive medicine should be for the benefit of everyone.
"To restrict fertility coverage solely to heterosexual married couples violates California's non-discrimination laws," he said in a statement. "I wrote this bill to correct that."
The new law, which takes effect in January, states that insurance plans offering coverage for fertility treatments cannot discriminate on any basis, including "domestic partner status, gender, gender expression, gender identity, genetic information, marital status . . . sex or sexual orientation."
Also on October 8, 2013, Governor Brown signed a bill designed to make it easier for transgender Californians to obtain birth certificates reflecting name and gender changes.
As the Associated Press notes, currently, birth certificates of Californians may be amended only by court order, a process that transgender rights advocates argued is expensive and needlessly invasive since a legal notice of the requested changes must be published in a newspaper.
The bill signed into law by Governor Brown, AB1121, was sponsored by San Diego Assemblywoman Toni Atkins. It authorizes the state registrar to issue a birth certificate with a corrected gender to a transgender person who provides proof of having undergone appropriate medical treatment.
Judges will still have to sign off on name changes, but will be able to do so without holding a formal hearing. The law also eliminates the legal notice requirement.