Long-distance swimmer and respected sports commentator has in more recent years spoken out on issues of glbtq rights.
Indian playwright, screenwriter, dancer, director, and actor Mahesh Dattani is an important figure in South Asian gay culture by virtue of his recurrent depiction of queer characters.
Entertainer Josephine Baker achieved acclaim as the twentieth century's first international black female sex symbol, but kept carefully hidden her many sexual liaisons with women, which continued from adolescence to the end of her life.
American painter Paul Cadmus is best known for the satiric innocence of his frequently censored paintings of burly men in skin-tight clothes, but he also created works that celebrate same-sex domesticity.
San Francisco visual artist Jerome Caja is known for his small, sensuous combinations of found objects, which he painted with nail polish, makeup, and glitter, as well as for his drag performances.
Although sparse in images documenting the gay community, pre-Stonewall gay male photography blurs the boundaries between art, erotica, and social history.
Female impersonation need say nothing about sexual identity, but it has for a long time been almost an institutionalized aspect of gay male culture.
Given the historic stigma around making, circulating, and possessing overtly homoerotic images, the visual arts have been especially important for providing a socially sanctioned arena for depicting the naked male body and suggesting homoerotic desire.
Josh Howard's new film, The Lavender Scare, scheduled for release in 2012, explores the witch hunts of the 1950s and 1960s. It vividly reminds us that for gay men and lesbians the McCarthy-era was a time of police harassment, suspicions of disloyalty, and dismissals from jobs, especially in the public sector. The abuses of gay men and lesbians did not end with the repudiation of Wisconsin senator Joseph McCarthy in 1953, but continued into the 1960s and, with lesser intensity, beyond.
Directed by Academy Award-winner Howard, the film is based on historian David K. Johnson's 2006 book, The Lavender Scare. It is the first feature-length documentary film to tell the story of the U.S. government's ruthless campaign to hunt down and fire every Federal employee it suspected was gay.
Before the lavender scare was over, more than 10,000 federal employees had been fired. The film examines the tactics used by the government to identify homosexuals, and takes audiences inside interrogation rooms where gay men and lesbians were subjected to grueling and demeaning questioning. These stories are told through the first-hand accounts of the people who experienced them.
The Lavender Scare shows how the government's actions ignited a homophobic frenzy that spread throughout the country, affecting the lives of all gay men and lesbians whether they worked for the government or not.
But the harassment of homosexuals throughout the 1950s also led them to believe in the necessity of mutual support. Although fighting back was not always possible and many gay men and lesbians were affected by guilt and internalized the stereotypes of the era, the 1950s was also the beginning of activism in the lesbian and gay communities.
The Mattachine Society and the Daughters of Bilitis, which together inaugurated the American homophile movement, were in many ways shaped by McCarthyism.
Instead of destroying American homosexuals, the actions of the government had the opposite effect: they stirred a sense of outrage and activism that helped ignite the gay rights movement.
To learn more about film, visit the website The Lavender Scare.
Here is the trailer: