Best known for his genius in art and architecture, Michelangelo was also an accomplished author of homoerotic poetry.
The bisexual Lord Byron treated many of his homosexual love affairs in his poetry, encoding them by the use of classical references or by purporting that they were affairs with women.
Before Stonewall, censorship of the theater caused authors to encode homosexual content in publicly-presented plays.
Combining elements of incongruity, theatricality, and exaggeration, camp is a form of humor that helps homosexuals cope with a hostile environment.
Sri Lankan-Canadian writer Shyam Selvadurai has emerged as a significant figure in post-colonial and gay writing by virtue of the style, wit, and perspicacity of his three novels.
There has always been homosexual involvement in American musical theatre and a homosexual sensibility even in straight musicals, and recently the Broadway musical has welcomed openly homosexual themes and situations.
The African-American gay male literary tradition consists of a substantial body of texts and includes some of the most gifted writers of the twentieth century.
A vigorous gay and lesbian literature emerged in the Philippines in the last two decades of the twentieth century.
On October 3, 2012, the Transgender Legal Defense and Education Fund (TLDEF) announced that it has resolved a claim on behalf of Ida Hammer, a transgender woman who had been denied health insurance coverage for sex reassignment surgery.
Hammer, a New York City resident, applied for pre-authorization for male-to-female sex reassignment surgery in July 2011. MVP Health Care denied her claim on the grounds that the surgery was "cosmetic" and therefore not covered under her policy. MVP denied two internal appeals, even after TLDEF submitted extensive evidence in support of Ms. Hammer's claim.
Only after TLDEF threatened to file a lawsuit did MVP reverse its position and agree to cover the doctor-recommended procedure. MVP acknowledged in its letter authorizing the surgery that "the requested surgery is medically necessary."
"I have been undergoing treatment for gender dysphoria for the past five years. My doctors determined that surgery is the only adequate treatment for my condition," Hammer said when the settlement was announced.
She added: "My insurance company should not be second-guessing my doctors. I'm relieved that it is finally treating me fairly and covering the health care I need."
TLDEF executive director Michael Silverman said, "The well-established medical and legal consensus is that transgender-related health care is medically necessary care. This surgery is not designed to improve one's appearance, but rather to treat a recognized medical condition. Transgender individuals pay the same premiums and simply want the same benefits as anyone else."
The medical necessity of sex reassignment surgery has been widely recognized in medicine and law. Organizations such as the American Medical Association, the American Psychological Association, and the World Professional Association for Transgender Health recognize surgery as medically necessary and support insurance coverage for it.
TLDEF was founded in 2005 to achieve equality for transgender people through public education, test-case litigation, direct legal services, community organizing, and public policy efforts. The New York-based organization works on issues ranging from employment discrimination to health care access, from educational discrimination to housing issues.
In the video below TLDEF attorney Noah Lewis discusses discrimination against transgender people.