The confrontations between police and demonstrators at the Stonewall Inn in New York City the weekend of June 27-29, 1969 mark the beginning of the modern glbtq movement for equal rights.
Formed soon after the Stonewall Riots of 1969, the short-lived but influential Gay Liberation Front brought a new militancy to the movement that became known as gay liberation.
The sexual revolution of post-World War II America changed sexual and gender roles profoundly.
"Leather" is a blanket term for a large array of sexual preferences, identities, relationship structures, and social organizations loosely tied together by the thread of what is conventionally understood as sadomasochistic sex.
Although best known for her crusade for women's suffrage, Susan B. Anthony spoke out on a range of feminist issues.
With reports from hundreds of sub-Saharan African locales of male-male sexual relations and from about fifty of female-female sexual relations, it is clear that same-sex sexual relations existed in traditional African societies, though varying in forms and in the degree of public acceptance
Androgyny, a psychological blending of gender traits, has long been embraced by strong women, soft men, members of queer communities, and others who do not easily fit into traditionally defined gender categories.
A cultural crossroads between Asia and Europe, Russia has a long, rich, and often violent heritage of varied influences and stark confrontations in regard to its patterns of same-sex love.
On October 3, 2012, the Transgender Legal Defense and Education Fund (TLDEF) announced that it has resolved a claim on behalf of Ida Hammer, a transgender woman who had been denied health insurance coverage for sex reassignment surgery.
Hammer, a New York City resident, applied for pre-authorization for male-to-female sex reassignment surgery in July 2011. MVP Health Care denied her claim on the grounds that the surgery was "cosmetic" and therefore not covered under her policy. MVP denied two internal appeals, even after TLDEF submitted extensive evidence in support of Ms. Hammer's claim.
Only after TLDEF threatened to file a lawsuit did MVP reverse its position and agree to cover the doctor-recommended procedure. MVP acknowledged in its letter authorizing the surgery that "the requested surgery is medically necessary."
"I have been undergoing treatment for gender dysphoria for the past five years. My doctors determined that surgery is the only adequate treatment for my condition," Hammer said when the settlement was announced.
She added: "My insurance company should not be second-guessing my doctors. I'm relieved that it is finally treating me fairly and covering the health care I need."
TLDEF executive director Michael Silverman said, "The well-established medical and legal consensus is that transgender-related health care is medically necessary care. This surgery is not designed to improve one's appearance, but rather to treat a recognized medical condition. Transgender individuals pay the same premiums and simply want the same benefits as anyone else."
The medical necessity of sex reassignment surgery has been widely recognized in medicine and law. Organizations such as the American Medical Association, the American Psychological Association, and the World Professional Association for Transgender Health recognize surgery as medically necessary and support insurance coverage for it.
TLDEF was founded in 2005 to achieve equality for transgender people through public education, test-case litigation, direct legal services, community organizing, and public policy efforts. The New York-based organization works on issues ranging from employment discrimination to health care access, from educational discrimination to housing issues.
In the video below TLDEF attorney Noah Lewis discusses discrimination against transgender people.