Although gay, lesbian, and queer theory are related practices, the three terms delineate separate emphases marked by different assumptions about the relationship between gender and sexuality.
The Harlem Renaissance, an African-American literary movement of the 1920s and 1930s, included several important gay and lesbian writers.
Oscar Wilde is important both as an accomplished writer and as a symbolic figure who exemplified a way of being homosexual at a pivotal moment in the emergence of gay consciousness.
Langston Hughes, whose literary legacy is enormous and varied, was closeted, but homosexuality was an important influence on his literary imagination, and many of his poems may be read as gay texts.
Conflicted over his own sexuality, Tennessee Williams wrote directly about homosexuality only in his short stories, his poetry, and his late plays.
Erotic and pornographic works have been written in many cultures since ancient times and recently have flourished with the relaxation of censorship.
Feminist literary theory is a complex, dynamic area of study that draws from a wide range of critical theories.
James Baldwin, a pioneering figure in twentieth-century literature, wrote sustained and articulate challenges to American racism and mandatory heterosexuality.
Questions relating to marriage equality will be on the November 6, 2012 ballot in four states: Maine, Maryland, Washington, and Minnesota.
Questions relating to marriage equality will be on the November 6, 2012 ballot in four states: Maine, Maryland, Washington, and Minnesota. Although it is deeply unfair to subject the rights of minorities to a popular vote, it is imperative that we begin to win some of these referenda.
Maine's Question 1 is a voter referendum on a citizen-initiated state statute, "An Act to Allow Marriage Licenses for Same-Sex Couples and Protect Religious Freedom." The question that will appear on the ballot will be: "Do you want to allow the State of Maine to issue marriage licenses to same-sex couples?"
In 2009, a referendum to veto the marriage equality bill that had been passed by the Maine legislature and signed by the governor passed 53 to 47 percent and repealed the law before it took effect.
Despite their disappointment, the state's marriage equality proponents did not give up in their quest for equal rights. They decided to attempt to persuade Maine voters to change their mind. In 2011, they announced plans to take the initiative and return to the ballot.
EqualityMaine and Gay & Lesbian Advocates & Defenders (GLAD) announced plans to place a voter initiative in support of same-sex marriage on Maine's November 2012 ballot. Supporters delivered more than 105,000 petition signatures for the initiative to the Secretary of State's office on January 26, 2012, exceeding the minimum of 57,277 signatures requirement.
If you live in Maine, please vote Yes on Question 1.
Maryland's Question 6 is a referendum on the marriage equality legislation that was passed by the legislature earlier this year. The Civil Marriage Protection Act allows same-sex couples to obtain civil marriage licenses and protects religious institutions from having to perform any particular marriage ceremony. Question 6 asks voters to vote "For" or "Against" the law.
If you live in Maryland, please vote For Question 6.
Washington state's Referendum 74 asks voters whether they approve or reject the marriage equality legislation passed by the legislature earlier this year. The ballot question reads: "This bill would allow same-sex couples to marry, preserve domestic partnerships only for seniors, and preserve the right of clergy or religious organizations to refuse to perform, recognize, or accommodate any marriage ceremony. Should this bill be: Approved or Rejected."
If you live in Washington, please vote Approved on Referendum 74.
Minnesota's Amendment 1 would add a section to Article XIII of the Minnesota Constitution that limits the status of marriage to opposite-sex couples: "only a union of one man and one woman shall be valid or recognized as a marriage in Minnesota."
In you live in Minnesota, please vote No on Amendment 1.
Thanks to a unanimous decision by the Iowa Supreme Court in 2009, that state has marriage equality. But anti-gay forces launched a successful campaign in 2010 against three members of the court who were up for a retention vote. This election another member of the court also faces a retention vote, Justice David Wiggins.
If you live in Iowa, please vote Yes to retain Justice Wiggins and maintain the independence of the Iowa Supreme Court.
Recent polls indicate that these races will be close but that we have reason for optimism.
The marriage equality video below was produced by FullFrontalFreedom.
The video below, produced by Google employees, is distributed by the Four, a marriage equality group focusing on the four ballot questions to be voted on on November 6, 2012.