With reports from hundreds of sub-Saharan African locales of male-male sexual relations and from about fifty of female-female sexual relations, it is clear that same-sex sexual relations existed in traditional African societies, though varying in forms and in the degree of public acceptance
The confrontations between police and demonstrators at the Stonewall Inn in New York City the weekend of June 27-29, 1969 mark the beginning of the modern glbtq movement for equal rights.
A social role for individuals who crossed or mixed male and female characteristics was one of the most widely distributed institutions of native North America.
The sexual revolution of post-World War II America changed sexual and gender roles profoundly.
Mixed-orientation marriages--those in which one partner is straight and the other is gay or lesbian--often end in divorce, but such an ending is not inevitable.
"Leather" is a blanket term for a large array of sexual preferences, identities, relationship structures, and social organizations loosely tied together by the thread of what is conventionally understood as sadomasochistic sex.
Since the late nineteenth century, transgendered people have advocated legal and social reforms that would ameliorate the kinds of oppression and discrimination they suffer.
Formed soon after the Stonewall Riots of 1969, the short-lived but influential Gay Liberation Front brought a new militancy to the movement that became known as gay liberation.
Clément Méric, an 18-year-old student at the prestigious French university Sciences Po, has died as a result of a beating by a group of Neo-Nazi skinheads in downtown Paris on June 5, 2013. His death on June 6, the latest outrage committed by right-wing extremists in France, has left the country reeling.
On June 6, thousands of people, in cities all over the country, gathered to offer sympathy to Méric's family, to honor his memory, and to express horror at the right-wing violence that has marked the demonstrations against marriage equality in France.
As The Local reports, seven arrests have been made, including the person suspected of delivering the final blow to Méric.
President François Hollande, who is on an official visit to Japan, "condemned the attack in the strongest possible terms."
"I have given the most rigorous possible instructions so that the authors of the odious act can be arrested at the earliest possible juncture," he said in a statement.
Although it is not clear that the attack on Méric was motivated by homophobia, acts of homophobic violence by extreme right-wingers have increased during the deliberations on marriage equality. Gay rights organizations have complained to authorities that glbtq people and their supporters are being targeted by fascists.
Interior Minister Manuel Valls told reporters that "There is no place for small neo-Nazi groups whose enemy is the nation. A group of the extreme right is at the heart of this assassination." He added, "There is a discourse of hate and a climate that favours this discourse. We need to pay attention to this because they threaten our values."
One of the attackers was seen wearing a t-shirt with the logo of the right-wing National Front party. Nevertheless, Marine Le Pen, the leader of the party, angrily denied that her organization had any involvement in the attack.
French industrialist and pro-gay marriage activist Pierre Bergé implicated the anti-gay marriage movement, known as 'Manif Pour Tous' (Demo for all) in the attack on Méric. He pointed out "the Manif pour tous accepted into their ranks these fascists who killed Clément."
Adding unbearable insult to the grievous injury of a young man's death, the French religious bigot who led the right-wing opposition to marriage equality has blamed the victim and the cause he espoused.
In an article for the French website Newsring, the despicable Frigide Barjot claimed that "The President has caused extremism to grow by passing a law that the French didn't want, and in a manner that was authoritarian and undemocratic. When we refuse to act like a democracy, extremism grows. In a way, you could say that there was a death because of this denial of democracy."
It was, of course, this stupid woman who threatened President Hollande and the nation when through democratic means marriage equality was adopted. She said in April "Hollande wants blood, and he's going to get it."
Her movement became so violent that she became afraid to attend the most recent demonstrations under the Manif pour tous banner, at which many demonstrators openly gave the fascist salute.
Like her American admirers Tony Perkins of the Family Research Council and Brian Brown of the National Organization for Marriage, Frigide Barjot has blood on her hands.
In the video below, from an April 2013 demonstration against the rise of homophobic violence in France, Méric may be seen holding a banner reading "Homophobia Kills."
The video below reports on the reaction to the murder in France.