glbtq: an encyclopedia of gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender & queer culture
social sciences
special features
about glbtq


   member name
   Forgot Your Password?  
Not a Member Yet?  

  Advertising Opportunities
  Permissions & Licensing
  Terms of Service
  Privacy Policy






Alpha Index:  A-B  C-F  G-K  L-Q  R-S  T-Z

Subjects:  A-B  C-E  F-L  M-Z

Gunn, Thom (1929-2004)  

The Anglo-American writer Thom Gunn was a major gay poet and a perceptive critic of gay poetry.

Gunn was born in Gravesend, Kent, and educated at University College School, Bedales and Trinity College, Cambridge. After coming to the United States in 1954, he studied at Stanford and taught at the University of California, Berkeley. He won a number of prestigious awards, including a Guggenheim Fellowship, the W. H. Smith Award, the Forward Press Award, and the MacArthur Prize.

Gunn's poetry has a popular reputation for sex and drugs and leather. This comes largely from the repeated anthologizing of his early poems from the collections Fighting Terms (1954) and The Sense of Movement (1956). In both books, a heroic masculine posing is celebrated as preferable, existentially, to the dull passivity of conformity. His leather boys in the poem "On the Move" are "always nearer by not keeping still." The voice of "Carnal Knowledge" admits that "even in bed I pose."

Posing does not disappear entirely from Gunn's later poems; there is often the sense of looking at looking at looking. And this perspective is exacerbated in the collections after Moly (1971) by hallucinogenic drugs' revelation of a self that can no longer be hidden in a costume.

Probably his greatest poem is the title work of the collection Jack Straw's Castle (1976), a poem in which his poetic ego descends into the maelstrom of dream worlds and nightmare visions: "But night makes me uneasy: floor by floor / Rooms never guessed at." In this maelstrom, Charles Manson (Gunn's one-time neighbor) says to him, "dreams don't come from nowhere: it's your dream / He Says, you dreamt it."

Gunn returned to this experience of nightmare vision with more sense of irony in another long poem, "The Menace," in the next collection, The Passages of Joy (1992). There "the one who wants to get me" turns out to be the reflection of himself in a store window and leads to a comic reflection on our construction of ourselves.

Constant in Gunn's poems from Touch (1967) onward, however, is what one critic has called "imaginative naturalness and greater openness of feeling." This increased naturalness entailed both a loosening of the traditional poetic forms with which he began to write and a greater freedom with the life of the senses and with feeling.

In the title poem, "Touch," a warmth surfaces from "the restraint of habits" and "the black frost / Of outsideness." And twenty-five years later, this warmth reappeared, in a poem addressed to his more-than-forty-years lover, recalling "the stay of your secure firm dry embrace."

From his embrace of the physical came both an ability to risk and some of the finest gay elegies ever written: the poems that give the title to The Man With Night Sweats (1992).

Once again, these poems are characterized by the contemplation of AIDS sufferers contemplating the bodies that they thought they knew. Here the bodily shields are now cracked and the pleasures "the hedonistic body basks within / And takes for granted" have gone away. But so have we who are left:

        dizzy from a sense
Of being ejected with some violence
From vigil in some white and distant spot.

The loss is not simply personal but also of a community that Gunn describes as having been a "supple entwinement of the living mass." We are the Holocaust survivors filing past what leaves us "less defined," "unconfined," and "abandoned incomplete." And yet the greatness of these poems, as works of art, contradicts their ostensible theme of loss.

As a major gay poet, Gunn's influence can be seen on such other gay poets as Edgar Bowers, Michael Vince, Jim Powell, Robert Wells, and Gregory Woods.

But he was also a prose writer and critic of great distinction who wrote some of the most intelligent criticism of such gay poets as Whitman, Ginsberg, James Merrill and Robert Duncan.

Collected Poems and a collection of prose, Shelf Life, were published in 1994. Frontiers of Gossip appeared in 1998 and Boss Cupid in 2000.

Gunn died in his sleep at his home in San Francisco on April 15, 2004. He is survived by his companion of over 52 years, Mike Kitay.

Douglas Chambers


zoom in
A portrait of Thom Gunn by Stathis Orphanos.
Contact Us
Join the Discussion
Related Entries
More Entries by this contributor
A Bibliography on this Topic

Citation Information
More Entries about Literature
Popular Topics:

The Arts

Drag Shows: Drag Queens and Female Impersonators
Drag Shows: Drag Queens and Female Impersonators

Photography: Gay Male, Pre-Stonewall
Photography: Gay Male, Pre-Stonewall

Erotic and Pornographic Art: Gay Male
Erotic and Pornographic Art: Gay Male

New Queer Cinema

White, Minor

Halston (Roy Halston Frowick)


Winfield, Paul

McDowall, Roddy
McDowall, Roddy

Cadinot, Jean-Daniel
Cadinot, Jean-Daniel


   Related Entries
literature >> Overview:  AIDS Literature

In the twenty years since its first appearance in the West, AIDS has been the subject of a large body of literature, most of it written by gay men and much of it designed to expose readers as closely as possible to the emergency of the epidemic and the suffering of affected individuals.

literature >> Overview:  American Literature: Gay Male, 1900-1969

Although largely invisible to the general public, a large body of twentieth-century gay male literature by American authors was published prior to Stonewall, some of it positive but most of it tinged with misery or bleakness as the price of being published and disseminated.

literature >> Overview:  American Literature: Gay Male, Post-Stonewall

After Stonewall, gay male literature became focused as a movement, aided by the development of gay newspapers, magazines, and quarterlies and the founding of serious gay and lesbian bookstores.

literature >> Overview:  English Literature: Twentieth-Century

Homosexuality, both male and female, has a rich, divergent, and increasingly open expression in the literature of the twentieth century.

literature >> Overview:  Poetry: Gay Male

The gay tradition in literature from ancient times to the present is primarily a tradition not of prose but of verse.

literature >> Duncan, Robert

Robert Duncan wrote a remarkable series of poems that deal directly with the love of men for other men.

literature >> Ginsberg, Allen

The forthrightly gay Allen Ginsberg is probably the best-known American poet to emerge in the post-World War II period.

literature >> Lehmann, John

One of the most distinguished and discerning British men of letters of the mid-twentieth century, John Lehmann is best known as an editor and publisher.

literature >> Merrill, James

James Merrill's significance as a gay writer lies in his deliberate use of a personal relationship to fuel his poetry.

literature >> Schuyler, James

Pulitzer Prize-winning poet James Schuyler, a prominent member of the New York School of poets and painters, wrote openly about his homosexuality.

literature >> Whitman, Walt

Celebrating an ideal of manly love in both its spiritual and physical aspects, Walt Whitman has exerted a profound and enduring influence on gay literature.


"Experience and Ideas: An Interview with Thom Gunn." Quarto 8 (1980): 9-11.

Klawitter, George. "Piety and the Agnostic Gay Poet: Thom Gunn's Biblical Homoerotics." Reclaiming the Sacred: The Bible in Gay and Lesbian Culture. Raymond-Jean Frontain, ed. New York: Haworth, 1997. 207-232.

Parini, Jay. "Rule and Energy: The Poetry of Thom Gunn." The Massachusetts Review 13 (1982): 134-151.

"Thom Gunn at Sixty." Supplement to PN Review 16 (1989).

Wilmer, Clive. "Definition and Flow: A Personal Reading of Thom Gunn." PN Review 5 (1978): 51-57.

Woods, Gregory. Articulate Flesh: Male Homo-Eroticism in Modern Poetry. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987.


    Citation Information
    Author: Chambers, Douglas  
    Entry Title: Gunn, Thom  
    General Editor: Claude J. Summers  
    Publication Name: glbtq: An Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual,
Transgender, and Queer Culture
    Publication Date: 2002  
    Date Last Updated December 20, 2004  
    Web Address  
    Publisher glbtq, Inc.
1130 West Adams
Chicago, IL   60607
    Today's Date  
    Encyclopedia Copyright: © 2002-2006, glbtq, Inc.  
    Entry Copyright © 1995, 2002 New England Publishing Associates  


This Entry Copyright © 1995, 2002 New England Publishing Associates is produced by glbtq, Inc., 1130 West Adams Street, Chicago, IL   60607 glbtq™ and its logo are trademarks of glbtq, Inc.
This site and its contents Copyright © 2002-2006, glbtq, Inc.  All Rights Reserved.
Your use of this site indicates that you accept its Terms of Service.