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Journalism and Publishing  
 
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On the East Coast, Boston's Fag Rag also specialized in radicalism and confrontation and published creative work by gay men, especially through its affiliated press, Good Gay Poets. Gay male poetry was also featured in Mouth of the Dragon, which published many of the most interesting gay poets of the 1970s.

Another journal founded in the 1970s is RFD ("a journal for country faggots"), which gives the lie to the myth that the gay and lesbian liberation movement has been exclusively urban. RFD publishes a wide variety of work, including poetry, recipes, essays on gay spirituality, and news of interest to rural gay men.

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Two lesbian journals founded in the 1970s also deserve note. Lesbian Tide began in 1973 after the Ladder ceased publication. It embraced the radical stance that Barbara Grier attempted to impose on the Ladder, but without the organizational sponsorship of the Daughters of Bilitis, which, by the early 1970s, seemed to many to be outdated.

A strong lesbian-feminist slant also characterizes Sinister Wisdom, which was founded in Berkeley in 1976 and is still publishing. A quarterly that presents creative and analytical work from lesbians of many different backgrounds and experiences, Sinister Wisdom has been a very influential forum for the past two decades.

Equally influential has been Christopher Street, perhaps the most sophisticated of gay publications. It was founded in May 1976 in New York as a kind of gay New Yorker. Its early imitations of the New Yorker extended into featuring a large number of intelligent and often hilarious cartoons. With its glossy covers and handsome design, it reached a large and literate audience.

Specializing in fiction and essays, the magazine published some of the leading gay and lesbian writers of our time, including especially Andrew Holleran and Quentin Crisp. It was affiliated with New York's leading gay newspaper, the Native. It ceased publication in 1997.

With the demise of Christopher Street, the most broadly-based and widely distributed journal focused on gay and lesbian books is The Lambda Book Report. Originally published by the Lambda Rising Bookstore, it is now published by a non-profit foundation, the Lambda Literary Foundation, which also also sponsors the prestigious Lambda Literary Awards.

Organization Newsletters and Scholarly Journals

Another innovation in gay and lesbian publishing during the 1970s was the establishment of newsletters sponsored by political, religious, and professional organizations or caucuses, and the appearance of scholarly journals devoted to the study of homosexuality.

The newsletters, which number in the hundreds, were chiefly means of communication and of building solidarity around common interests. The scholarly journals, which included Gai Saber (1977-1978), Gay Books Bulletin / Cabirion (1979-1985), and Gay Literature (1976), were responses to the beginnings of the gay studies movement. quest: a feminist quarterly (1974-1984), established by lesbian feminist activists in order to encourage debate and develop theory, became the premiere theoretical journal of lesbian feminism.

They were attempts to provide outlets for a burgeoning scholarly interest in homosexuality at a time when established scholarly journals and presses were leery of the subject. However, by the end of the decade some university presses, such as the University of Chicago Press, had declared themselves open to gay studies.

The most substantial of these new journals of the 1970s, and the only one of them that survives, is the Journal of Homosexuality, founded by John DeCecco at San Francisco State University in 1974. Although originally heavily slanted toward the quantitative social sciences, in more recent years it has broadened its scope by including essays in the humanities, including literary studies.

Published by Haworth Press, which frequently publishes special issues of the journal as separate books, the Journal of Homosexuality has been an important venue for the dissemination of scholarly information about homosexuality and about gay men and lesbians.

Gay and Lesbian Presses

The 1970s also saw a proliferation of presses dedicated to publishing work that mainstream publishers evinced no interest in. These include many women's presses, several of which have a lesbian-feminist political ethos. Four presses founded in the 1970s are of special interest to gay and lesbian readers.

In 1973, Daughters Inc was founded by novelist June Arnold and her lover attorney Parke Bowman, political theorist Charlotte Bunch, and novelist Bertha Harris. It published five titles annually from 1973 through 1978, including important work by the founders.

Also in 1973, Barbara Grier and Donna McBride, with the assistance of two backers, established Naiad Press. Naiad Press's first book was Latecomer by Sarah Aldridge (1974). Its titles include important work by Jane Rule, Sheila Taylor Ortiz, and Katherine V. Forrest. Although it is especially noted for its lesbian mysteries and romances, Naiad Press has also published nonfiction such as Rosemary Curb and Nancy Manahan's Lesbian Nuns: Breaking Silence (1985) and Barbara Grier's The Lesbian in Literature: A Bibliography (1981).

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