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Special Features Index  

 
Spotlight Architecture and Interior Design
 
Gay, lesbian, and bisexual architects, designers, and patrons have made substantial and diverse contributions to Architecture and Interior Design, though the impact of sexual orientation on building design is unclear.
 
 
Arts and Crafts Movement The Arts and Crafts Movement arose as a reaction against nineteenth-century industrialism. The movement emphasized handcrafted, decorative designs and created guilds of artisans that have been seen as homosocial.
 
 
Bryan BattBryan Batt (b. 1963) is a veteran stage actor best known today for his role as Salvatore Romano in the hit television series Mad Men. Batt and his partner have also applied their interest and talents in interior design as the proprietors of Hazelnut, a New Orleans home accessories store.
 
 
William Beckford William Beckford (1760-1844) was a spectacularly wealthy English writer, collector, and connoisseur. His novel Vathek (1786) is an important contribution to literary Gothicism, while Fonthill Abbey, an enormous home he commissioned, was an influential early example of Gothic Revival architecture.
 
 
Erté (Romain de Tirtoff) (1892-1990) was one of the most innovative designers of the twentieth century. He is best known for his fashion designs and lithographs, but he influenced interior design and home furnishings as well.
 
 
Duncan GrantDuncan Grant (1885-1978) was a British artist who has been described as the sexual catalyst of the Bloomsbury circle. Grant co-founded the Omega Workshops, which influenced home decor and design in the United Kingdom.
 
 
Eileen GrayEileen Gray (1878-1976) was a renowned designer of furniture, rugs, and lacquered screens. She also gained fame as an architect who designed elegant, spare residences.
 
 
Billy HainesWilliam "Billy" Haines (1900-1973) enjoyed a Hollywood career as a star and leading man, but was dropped by MGM because he refused to conceal his homosexuality. Following the abrupt end of his acting career, Haines began a second and became a star of interior design. The glamorous "Hollywood Regency" style he pioneered was much sought by movie stars and other wealthy patrons.
 
 
Richard Halliburton (1900-1939) was an American adventurer and travel writer who commissioned "Hangover House," a landmark of modernist architecture in Laguna Beach, California, designed by William Alexander Levy, who was involved in an affair with both Halliburton and his lover.
 
 
Frank Israel (1945-1996) imbibed the influence of modernist architects but developed his own urban architectural style. One of the most extravagantly gifted architects of his generation, Israel died in 1996 of AIDS-related complications.
 
 
Philip JohnsonPhilip Johnson (1906-2005) was a dominating force in twentieth-century American architecture. His frequent reinventions of himself and his refusal to dogmatically adhere to the principles of any single architectural style make his work both interesting and controversial.
 
 
Costumes by William Ivey LongWilliam Ivey Long (b. ca 1947) is an acclaimed costume designer who is also well known for his architectural restoration and preservation projects.
 
 
Julia MorganJulia Morgan (1872-1957), the first woman architect to be registered in California, designed more than 700 buildings. She is most remembered as the architect of San Simeon, the Hearst Castle north of Los Angeles.
 
 
James Ogilvy, Earl of Findlater (1750-1811) enjoyed a considerable inheritance that allowed him to pursue his passions for landscape architecture and philanthropy. He is particularly remembered for promoting the English landscape garden on the European mainland, especially in Germany.
 
 
Percier and Fontaine Charles Percier (1764-1838) and Pierre Fontaine (1762-1853) were among the founders of the neoclassic Empire style. The two French architects were devoted to each other throughout their lives.
 
 
Lionel H. Pries (1897-1968) was a noted architect and artist who is remembered for his legendary teaching career at the University of Washington. His career was cut short when the university president fired him in 1958 because of his homosexuality.
 
 
Paul RudolphPaul Rudolph (1918-1977) was one of the most esteemed American architects of the 1960s. He developed an exaggeratedly masculine Brutalist aesthetic, though the extent to which his homosexuality affected his designs is difficult to determine.
 
 
Gianni Versace MansionGianni Versace (1946-1997) won acclaim not only as a fashion designer, but also for his homeware collections.
 
 
Horace WalpoleHorace Walpole (1717-1797) is remembered for his novel The Castle of Otranto (1764), which almost single-handedly instituted the Gothic novel vogue, and for Strawberry Hill, a mansion he built that anticipated the Gothic Revival architectural style by decades.
 
 
Elsie de WolfeElsie de Wolfe (1865-1950) was an actress and interior decorator who helped create and popularize the interior design profession. She was also a central figure in an elite lesbian enclave in New York City.
 
 
 

 
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