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social sciences

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Male to female have a unique experience with misogyny. Though these individuals may have felt for years that they were really meant to be women, they grew up as males and thus were taught culturally dominant misogynist attitudes. After transitioning to life as women, these individuals suddenly become the victims of misogyny, as they are expected to behave in feminine ways, be submissive, and become subject to misogynist violence and discrimination.

Feminists and lesbians who try to create "womyn-born-womyn" safe space, like that at the Michigan Womyn's Music Festival, often exclude male to female transsexuals because of the belief that the upbringing of these individuals makes them misogynists despite their appearance as women. These policies leave male to female transsexuals with few safe spaces where they can escape the misogyny and that dominate their lives.

Sponsor Message.

Fighting Misogyny

Many groups are active in fighting misogyny, both as an individual belief and as a cultural construct. These groups include feminist organizations, queer movement groups, and many other networks devoted to fighting for equality of all people in society.

However, the ability of these groups to make positive changes is limited by the dominance of misogynist ideologies in society. These ideologies are inculcated from early childhood, as boys play games where girls are considered to have "cooties" or when boys who are not good at sports are called "sissies" and told that they "throw like a girl." In order for misogyny in society to diminish, not only do popular culture and politics have to be less discriminatory and degrading towards women, but the patterns of childrearing and education also have to change.

Mikaila Mariel Lemonik Arthur

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Brevard, Aleshia. The Woman I Was Not Born to Be. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2001.

Doane, Janice. Nostalgia and Sexual Difference: The Resistance to Contemporary Feminism. New York: Methuen, 1987.

Gilmore, David D. Misogyny: The Male Malady. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2001.

Jukes, Adam. Why Men Hate Women. London: Free Association Books, 1993.

Radclyffe, Megan. Lesbophobia: Gay Men and Misogyny. London: Cassell Academic, 1995.

Smith, Joan. Misogynies: Reflections on Myths & Malice. New York: Fawcett Columbine, 1991.


    Citation Information
    Author: Arthur, Mikaila Mariel Lemonik  
    Entry Title: Misogyny  
    General Editor: Claude J. Summers  
    Publication Name: glbtq: An Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual,
Transgender, and Queer Culture
    Publication Date: 2004  
    Date Last Updated December 29, 2004  
    Web Address  
    Publisher glbtq, Inc.
1130 West Adams
Chicago, IL   60607
    Today's Date  
    Encyclopedia Copyright: © 2002-2006, glbtq, Inc.  
    Entry Copyright © 2004, glbtq, inc.  


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