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social sciences

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Psychoanalysis, Freud, and the "Western Canon"

Over the years, psychoanalysis, and the work of Sigmund Freud in particular, have been rebutted from a variety of perspectives and with diverse theoretical aims. While psychiatrist and existential thinker Karl Jaspers rejected Freud's "scientistic superstition" (Wissenschaftsaberglaube), philosopher of science Karl Popper has seriously questioned the epistemological cogency of psychoanalysis.

Further, the therapeutic efficacy of psychanalysis has been in dispute (Adolf Grünbaum), and the personal ethics of its founder has been called in question (Thomas Szasz, Jeffrey Moussaieff Masson). Against the backdrop of a growing skepticism toward psychoanalysis, it is significant that literary historian Harold Bloom includes Freud in his opus The Western Canon on account of his being "the great mythmaker of our time, fit rival to Proust, Joyce, and Kafka as the canonical center of modern literature." Conceding that, as a therapy, "psychoanalysis is dying, perhaps already dead," Bloom contends that the canonical survival of Freud is linked with his "description of the totality of human nature." In his view, Freud "is the mind of our age, as Montaigne was the mind of Shakespeare's."

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Abraham, Karl. Psychoanalytische Studien. Gesammelte Werke. Johannes Cremerius, ed. 2 vols. Gießen: Psychosozial-Verlag, 1999.

Adler, Alfred. Werkausgabe. Oliver Brachfeld, Wolfgang Metzger, Heinz L. Ansbacher, and Robert F. Antoch, eds. 19 vols. Frankfurt am Main: Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, 1979.

Bersani, Leo. The Freudian Body: Psychoanalysis and Art. New York: Columbia University Press, 1986.

Bloom, Harold. The Western Canon: The Books and School of the Ages. New York: Harcourt Brace & Company, 1994.

Brown, Norman O. Life against Death: The Psychoanalytical Meaning of History. 2nd ed. Christopher Lasch, introduction. Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 1985.

_____. Love's Body. New York: Vintage Books, 1966.

Ellenberger, Henri F. The Discovery of the Unconscious: The History and Evolution of Dynamic Psychiatry. New York: Basic Books, 1970.

Fages, Jean-Baptiste. Histoire de la Psychanalyse après Freud. Rev. ed. Georges Hahn, intro. Paris: Éditions Odile Jacob, 1996.

Fenichel, Otto. Aufsätze. Klaus Laermann, ed. 2 vols. Frankfurt am Main, Berlin, and Vienna: Ullstein Materialien, 1985.

Ferenczi, Sándor. Schriften zur Psychoanalyse. Michael Balint, ed. 2 vols. Frankfurt am Main: Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, 1982.

Forrester, John. Dispatches from the Freud Wars: Psychoanalysis and Its Passions. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1997.

Freud, Sigmund. Gesammelte Werke. Chronologisch geordnet. Anna Freud et al., eds. 19 vols. Frankfurt am Main: Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, 1999.

_____. Studienausgabe. Alexander Mitscherlich et al., eds. 10 vols. and Supplement. Frankfurt am Main: S. Fischer Verlag, 1975.

Hale, Nathan G. Freud and the Americans. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Hocquenghem, Guy. Le désir homosexuel. René Schérer, intro. Paris: Fayard, 2000.

Horney, Karen. Feminine Psychology. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1967.

Irigaray, Luce. Éthique de la différence sexuelle. Paris: Éditions de Minuit, 1984.

_____. Speculum, de l´autre femme. Paris: Éditions de Minuit, 1974.

Jaspers, Karl. Allgemeine Psychopathologie. 9th ed. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1973.

_____. Gesammelte Werke. Marianne Niehus-Jung et al., eds. 20 vols. Solothurn and Düsseldorf: Walter-Verlag, 1995.

Klein, Dennis B. Jewish Origins of the Psychoanalytic Movement. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985.

Klein, Melanie. The Writings of Melanie Klein. 4 vols. New York: The Free Press, 1984.

Kristeva, Julia. La révolte intime. Pouvoirs et limites de la psychanalyse II. Paris: Fayard, 1997.

_____. Sens et non-sens de la révolte. Pouvoirs et limites de la psychanalyse I. Paris: Fayard, 1996.

Lacan, Jacques. Écrits I. Paris: Éditions du Seuil, 1966.

_____. Écrits II. Paris: Éditions du Seuil, 1966.

Laqueur, Thomas. Making Sex: Body and Gender from the Greeks to Freud. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1992.

Lewes, Kenneth. The Psychoanalytic Theory of Male Homosexuality. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1988.

Marcuse, Herbert. Eros and Civilization: A Philosophical Inquiry into Freud. With a New Preface. Boston: Beacon Press, 1974.

Moussaieff Masson, Jeffrey. The Assault on Truth: Freud's Suppression of the Seduction Theory. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux, 1984.

Popper, Karl R. Logik der Forschung. Tübingen: Mohr, 2002.

Rank, Otto. Beyond Psychology. New York: Dover Publications, 1958.

_____. A Psychology of Difference: The American Lectures. Robert Kramer, ed.; Rollo May, foreword. Princeton, N. J.: Princeton University Press, 1996.

_____, und Sándor Ferenczi. Entwicklungsziele der Psychoanalyse. Zur Wechselbeziehung zwischen Theorie und Praxis. Michael Turnheim, afterword. Vienna: Turia and Kant, 1996.

Roudinesco, Elisabeth. Histoire de la psychanalyse en France. 2 vols. Paris: Fayard, 1994.

Reich, Wilhelm. Charakteranalyse. Köln: Kiepenheuer & Witsch, 1997.

_____. Die Massenpsychologie des Faschismus. Köln: Kiepenheuer & Witsch, 1972.

Roazen, Paul. The Historiography of Psychoanalysis. New Brunswick, N. J.: Transaction Publications, 2000.

Szasz, Thomas. The Myth of Psychotherapy: Mental Healing as Religion, Rhetoric, and Repression. Syracuse, N. Y.: Syracuse University Press, 1988.

Whitebook, Joel. Perversion and Utopia: A Study in Psychoanalysis and Critical Theory. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1996.

Wright, Elizabeth, ed. Feminism and Psychoanalysis: A Critical Dictionary. Oxford: Blackwell, 1998.


    Citation Information
    Author: Bauer, J. Edgar  
    Entry Title: Psychoanalysis  
    General Editor: Claude J. Summers  
    Publication Name: glbtq: An Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual,
Transgender, and Queer Culture
    Publication Date: 2004  
    Date Last Updated December 14, 2006  
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