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social sciences

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Some people opined that the International Olympic Committee (IOC) should ban Russia from the 2014 Games--whether or not they were held in Sochi--for violating Rule 50 of the Olympic Charter, which provides for the exclusion of countries that infringe upon human rights.

However, the IOC showed no willingness to tackle this issue. Chairman Jean-Claude Killy of France stated, "The IOC doesn't really have the right to discuss the laws in the country where the Olympic Games are organized. As long as the Olympic Charter is respected, we are satisfied, and that is the case."

Sponsor Message.

In fact, in the past the IOC has banned countries including the Republic of South Africa Rhodesia (for their discriminatory racial policies) and Afghanistan (for its denial of rights to women).

Seeing no sign of any support from the IOC, advocates for glbtq rights have called upon corporate sponsors of the Sochi Games either to withdraw their support or to use the opportunity to speak up for equal rights.]

Daniel D. Healey

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social sciences >> Overview:  Cross-Dressing

Cross-dressers have often been misunderstood and maligned, especially in societies with rigid gender roles.

social sciences >> Overview:  Finland

Like other Nordic countries, Finland is liberal in regards to gay rights, though it has been slower than its neighbors to assure glbtq equality.

social sciences >> Overview:  Gay Left

The Gay Left refers to a cluster of positions on the political spectrum that has existed within the lesbian and gay rights movement at least since the Stonewall riots.

social sciences >> Overview:  Intersexuality

Intersexuality (formerly referred to as hermaphroditism) is a congenital anomaly in which an individual's external genitalia or internal reproductive systems fall outside the norms for either male or female bodies.

social sciences >> Overview:  Military Culture: European

Attitudes toward gay and lesbian personnel in European militaries vary widely, from the acceptance of the Dutch to the laissez-faire policy of the French to the rejection of the Greek and Turkish forces.

social sciences >> Overview:  Moscow

The confusion of queer identities and possibilities presented by Moscow owes much to its rapid growth and village origins of its inhabitants.

social sciences >> Overview:  Prague

The capital and largest city of the Czech Republic, Prague is the hub of the country's gay and lesbian life and the center of its glbtq political movement.

literature >> Overview:  Russian Literature

Since the eleventh century, Russian literature has included treatments of homosexual themes.

social sciences >> Overview:  St. Petersburg

St. Petersburg, Russa was once the crucible of one of history's liveliest and most articulate homosexual cultures.

literature >> Burroughs, William S.

Both in his life and his novels, American writer William S. Burroughs was an outlaw and a provocateur, focusing on sexual repression as the fundamental element of social control and writing in a surrealistic and bitterly satirical mode.

arts >> Eisenstein, Sergei Mikhailovich

One of the greatest filmmakers in the history of cinema, Sergei Eistenstein chafed under the restrictions of Stalinism.

literature >> Foucault, Michel

One of the leading philosophers of the twentieth century, Foucault has had an enormous influence on our understanding of the lesbian and gay literary heritage and the cultural forces surrounding it.

literature >> Genet, Jean

Jean Genet's work has left a powerful legacy to post-modernity and remains a provocation to questions of gay identity.

literature >> Gogol, Nikolai

Nikolai Gogol's repressed homosexuality is reflected obliquely in nearly all of his works, especially in the fear of marriage that permeates his stories and plays.

literature >> Kuzmin, Mikhail Alekseyevich

The Russian writer and translator Mikhail Kuzmin wrote poems and novels that present sympathetic, often idealistic, portrayals of gay love and desire.

literature >> Parnok, Sophia

The creativity of Russian poet Sophia Parnok was closely linked to her lesbianism.

arts >> Tchaikovsky, Pyotr Ilich

One of the greatest composers in the history of music, Pyotr Ilich Tchaikovsky inspired a cult of gay admirers who detected in his work themes of forbidden love.

literature >> Tsvetaeva, Marina Ivanovna

A lesbian theme runs throughout the works of Marina Tsvetaeva, widely considered one of the four greatest twentieth-century Russian poets.

literature >> Wittig, Monique

The controversial lesbian author and theorist Monique Wittig has produced some of the most challenging fictional and theoretical work of second-wave feminism.


Baer, Brian James. "The Other Russia: Re-Presenting the Gay Experience." Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History 1.1 (2000): 183-94.

_____. "Russian Gays/Western Gaze: Mapping (Homo)Sexual Desire in Post-Soviet Russia." GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies 8.4 (2002): 499-520.

Barry, Ellen. "Officials Say Homophobia Motivated Murder in Russia." New York Times (May 13, 2013): A8.

Boswell, John. Same-Sex Unions in Premodern Europe. New York: Villard Books, 1994.

Clements, Barbara Evan, Rebecca Friedman, and Dan Healey, eds. Russian Masculinities in History and Culture. Basingstoke, England: Palgrave, 2002.

Essig, Laurie. Queer in Russia: A Story of Sex, Self and the Other. Durham, N. C.: Duke University Press, 1999.

Fierstein, Harvey. "Russia's Anti-Gay Crackdown." New York Times (July 22, 2013):

Grove, Thomas, and Steve Gutterman. "Russia's Gays Fear More Violence after Brutal Murder." Reuters (May 13, 2013):

Harding, Luke. "Gay Activists Beaten in Russia." The Guardian (London) (May 28, 2007): International, 14.

Healey, Dan. "Can We Queer Early Modern Russia?" Siting Queer Masculinities. Katherine O'Donnell and Michael O'Rourke, eds. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, in press.

_____. Homosexual Desire in Revolutionary Russia: The Regulation of Sexual and Gender Dissent. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001.

_____. "Homosexual Existence and Existing Socialism: New Light on the Repression of Male Homosexuality in Stalin's Russia." GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies 8.3 (2002): 349-78.

_____. "Masculine Purity and 'Gentlemen's Mischief': Sexual Exchange, Barter and Prostitution between Russian Men." Slavic Review 60.2 (2001): 233-65.

_____. "Sexual and Gender Dissent: Homosexuality as Resistance in Stalin's Russia." Contending with Stalinism: Soviet Power and Popular Resistance in the 1930s. Lynne Viola, ed. Ithaca, N. Y.: Cornell University Press, 2002. 139-69,

_____. "Unruly Identities: Soviet Psychiatry Confronts the 'Female Homosexual' of the 1920s." Gender in Russian History and Culture, 1800-1990. Linda Edmondson, ed. Basingstoke, England: Palgrave, 2001. 116-38.

Karlinsky, Simon. "Russia's Gay Literature and Culture: The Impact of the October Revolution." Hidden from History: Reclaiming the Gay and Lesbian Past. Martin Bauml Duberman, Martha Vicinus, and George Chauncey, Jr., eds. New York: New American Library, 1989. 348-64.

_____. "Russia's Gay History and Literature. (11th-20th Centuries)." Gay Sunshine 29-30 (1976): 1-7. Rpt. Gay Roots. Twenty Years of Gay Sunshine. Winston Leyland, ed. San Francisco: Gay Sunshine Press, 1991. 81-104.

Klein, L. S. Drugaia liubov' [The Other Love]. St. Petersburg: Folio-Press, 2000.

Kolyander, Alexander. "Russia Rejects Gay Rights Remark in G8 Statement." Wall Street Journal (April 13, 2012):

Kozlovskii, Vladimir. Argo russkoi gomoseksual'noi subku'tury [The Slang of the Russian Homosexual Subculture]. Benson, Vt.: Chalidze Publications, 1986.

Lally, Kathy. "Olympic Panel Won't Fight Russia's Anti-Gay Law." Washington Post (September 27, 2013): A17.

Levin, Eve. Sex and Society in the World of Orthodox Slavs, 900-1700. Ithaca, N. Y.: Cornell University Press, 1989.

Luhn, Alec. "Russian Anti-gay Law Prompts Rise in Homophobic Violence." The Guardian (September 1, 2013):

Luxmoore, Jonathan. "Will the Church in Russia Speak out on Attacks on Gay People?" Catholic Herald (United Kingdom) (October 22, 2013):

Moss, Kevin, ed. Out of the Blue: Russia's Hidden Gay Literature: An Anthology. San Francisco: Gay Sunshine Press, 1997.

Poznansky, Alexander. Tchaikovsky's Last Days: A Documentary Study. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996.

_____. Tchaikovsky: The Quest for the Inner Man. New York: Schirmer Books, 1991.

Rotikov, Konstantin K. Drugoi Peterburg [The Other Petersburg]. St Petersburg: Liga Plius, 1998.

Tuller, David. Cracks in the Iron Closet: Travels in Gay & Lesbian Russia. Boston: Faber & Faber, 1996.

Zhuk, Ol'ga. Russkie amazonki: Istoriia lesbiiskoi subkul'tury v Rossii XX vek [Russian Amazons: A History of the Lesbian Subculture in Twentieth-Century Russia]. Moscow: Glagol, 1998.


    Citation Information
    Author: Healey, Daniel D.  
    Entry Title: Russia  
    General Editor: Claude J. Summers  
    Publication Name: glbtq: An Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual,
Transgender, and Queer Culture
    Publication Date: 2004  
    Date Last Updated October 28, 2013  
    Web Address  
    Publisher glbtq, Inc.
1130 West Adams
Chicago, IL   60607
    Today's Date  
    Encyclopedia Copyright: © 2002-2006, glbtq, Inc.  
    Entry Copyright © 2004, glbtq, inc.  


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