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social sciences

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Separatism  
 
page: 1  2  3  

For example, in 1971 the Gay Activists Alliance (GAA) introduced a bill to the New York City Council that was designed to protect homosexuals from discrimination. Although drag queens such as Silvia Rivera were active supporters of the GAA, the authors of the bill excluded transgendered people from its protection. This led transgender activists to break away from GAA and form their own organizations.

One of the most important pieces of anti-discriminatory legislation has been the proposed federal Employment Non-Discrimination Act (ENDA). Although transgender activists worked on the bill's wording with its congressional sponsors and with members of the lesbian and gay community, due to concerns by the Human Rights Campaign (HRC) trans-inclusive language was removed shortly before the bill was introduced in Congress in 1994. Thus, while the bill asked for protections based on sexual orientation, it lacked any language that would provide workplace rights for transgendered people.

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Similar exclusionary practices also occurred at the state level during the mid-1990s. For instance, in 1995 transgender activists in Oregon were dismayed to learn that their lesbian and gay colleagues had excised trans-inclusive provisions from a bill at the last minute.

In response, transgender activists spent the late 1990s lobbying HRC and other lesbian and gay organizations to reconsider their exclusion of transgendered people in policy formation. These efforts resulted in an increase in transgender inclusivity, and in 2003 ENDA was finally modified by its sponsors to cover transgendered people.

Andrew Matzner

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social sciences >> Overview:  Anti-discrimination Statutes and Ordinances

Anti-discrimination statutes and ordinances have made a real difference in the lives of millions of glbtq individuals.

social sciences >> Overview:  Bisexuality

Although until recently rejected by most sexologists as a distinct sexual identity, bisexuality is gradually becoming recognized and studied as such.

social sciences >> Overview:  Bisexual Movements

Although bisexuals have played an important part in the glbt movement for equality, they often had to hide their bisexuality; more recently, however, the bisexual movement has been accepted as part of the larger glbt movement and bisexual organizations now flourish.

social sciences >> Overview:  Cross-Dressing

Cross-dressers have often been misunderstood and maligned, especially in societies with rigid gender roles.

arts >> Overview:  Music Festivals

A cultural institution among lesbians, women's music festivals are community-based events that celebrate women's space as much as women's music.

arts >> Overview:  Music: Women's

Stylistically diverse and continually evolving, women's music has broadened over time, but it remains committed to lesbian visibility and feminist values.

social sciences >> Overview:  Parades and Marches

Both parades and marches have served to render the glbtq community visible; whereas marches typically attempt to effect political change, parades and pride events affirm identity and community.

social sciences >> Overview:  Patriarchy

Patriarchy, literally "the rule of the fathers," is a social system in which men hold positions of power and women are oppressed and glbtq people are treated negatively.

arts >> Overview:  Sports: Transgender Issues

Fears and misconceptions about transgendered and intersexed athletes abound.

social sciences >> Overview:  Transgender Activism

Since the late nineteenth century, transgendered people have advocated legal and social reforms that would ameliorate the kinds of oppression and discrimination they suffer.

social sciences >> Overview:  Women's Liberation Movement

The Women's Liberation Movement, which flourished during the 1970s, constitutes the largest and most widely publicized social movement of women in history.

social sciences >> Daly, Mary

Radical feminist philosopher, theologian, and linguist, Mary Daly is an outspoken lesbian-feminist separatist who has provoked outrage by challenging established ideas and institutions that she considers destructive to women's power and creativity.

social sciences >> Daughters of Bilitis

The first national lesbian political and social organization in the United States, the Daughters of Bilitis was a significant part of the pre-Stonewall lesbian and gay rights movement.

social sciences >> Gay Activists Alliance

An important organization of the early post-Stonewall era, the Gay Activists Alliance, which flourished from 1969 to 1974, strove to give gay men and lesbians visibility in American politics.

arts >> Gay Games

A quadrennial sporting and cultural event designed for the glbtq community, the Gay Games has become a lucrative attraction for host cities.

social sciences >> Prince, Virginia Charles

Virginia Charles Prince has been a pioneer in organizing social and support groups for heterosexually-identified male cross-dressers.

social sciences >> Rivera, Sylvia

A legendary veteran of the Stonewall Riots, Sylvia Rivera is notable for helping to spark the event that ushered in the modern-day Gay Rights Movement.

social sciences >> Stonewall Riots

The confrontations between police and demonstrators at the Stonewall Inn in New York City the weekend of June 27-29, 1969 mark the beginning of the modern glbtq movement for equal rights.


    Bibliography
   

Adam, Barry. The Rise of a Gay and Lesbian Movement. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1987.

Bullough, Vern, and Bonnie Bullough. Cross Dressing, Sex, and Gender. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1993.

Califia, Pat. Sex Changes: The Politics of Transgenderism. San Francisco: Cleis Press, 1997.

Rudy, Kathy. "Radical Feminism, Lesbian Separatism, and Queer Theory." Feminist Studies 27.1 (Spring 2001): 191-222.

Seidman, Steven. The Social Construction of Sexuality. New York: Norton, 2003.

 

    Citation Information
         
    Author: Matzner, Andrew  
    Entry Title: Separatism  
    General Editor: Claude J. Summers  
    Publication Name: glbtq: An Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual,
Transgender, and Queer Culture
 
    Publication Date: 2004  
    Date Last Updated April 18, 2005  
    Web Address www.glbtq.com/social-sciences/separatism.html  
    Publisher glbtq, Inc.
1130 West Adams
Chicago, IL   60607
 
    Today's Date  
    Encyclopedia Copyright: © 2002-2006, glbtq, Inc.  
    Entry Copyright © 2004, glbtq, inc.  
 

 

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