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social sciences

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Stockholm is built on 14 islands and Pride takes place in "Pride Park" on Södermalm, the largest of the islands. Other parts of the city also host a variety of Pride-related events, including movie screenings, art exhibits, political debates, meetings with politicians, and, of course, parties and dances. Since 2002, Stockholm Pride has featured "Pride House," a cultural center where open forums are held, along with other activities featuring various glbtq organizations, associations, and activists.

However, the Stockholm Pride celebrations have not been without controversy. In 2003, a group of 30 skinheads, claiming membership in a right-wing political party, attacked marchers in the Pride parade with bottles and stones. Two were arrested for the attacks and one person was hospitalized.

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In 1971, RSFL expanded to include bisexuals; in 2001, it voted to include transgendered people as well. RFSL serves both as a social and political group. In 2003, they had approximately 6,700 members. RFSL has chapters throughout Sweden; its headquarters is in downtown Stockholm.

The Swedish Youth Federation for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Rights (RFSL Ungdom) was originally the youth branch of RFSL. In 2003, RFSL Ungdom was established as an independent organization, run by young people, to focus on the rights and interests of young glbtq people in Sweden.

The Swedish Association for HIV-Positive People (Riksförbundet för hivpositiva) is a national organization headquartered in Stockholm that works to promote the interests of HIV-positive Swedes. It fights discrimination, advocates on behalf of HIV-positive individuals, educates the public about HIV-positive people, and helps HIV-positive individuals return to the workforce.

Nadine M. Jernewall

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social sciences >> Overview:  Adoption

Although there are frequently social and legal barriers to overcome, adoption is an important way in which lesbian and gay male couples create families.

social sciences >> Overview:  Artificial Insemination

Artificial insemination is often used by heterosexual and single women who wish to conceive without sexual contact with males; it is frequently the method of choice when gay men create families through surrogacy or co-parenting.

social sciences >> Overview:  Aversion Therapy

A form of behavior modification that employs unpleasant and sometimes painful stimuli, aversion therapy was one of the more popular treatments for homosexuality and cross-dressing in the 1950s and 1960s.

social sciences >> Overview:  Hate Crimes

Hate Crimes are crimes towards persons or groups motivated by the victim's race, color, religion, national origin, sexual orientation, and gender identity.

social sciences >> Overview:  Immigration Law

Those countries that allow the immigration of glbtq persons based on persecution in their home countries often raise difficulties or apply the existing laws inequitably, especially in the case of glbtq couples who apply for entry as domestic partners.

social sciences >> Overview:  Same-Sex Marriage

Lesbian and gay couples have been fighting for the freedom to marry since the dawn of the modern glbtq struggle for equality; despite some success abroad, progress toward same-sex marriage in the United States has been slow.

social sciences >> Overview:  Sweden

A liberal and democratic kingdom, Sweden has a reputation for sexual openness, yet it maintains a law that punishes buyers of sex from prostitutes.

social sciences >> Overview:  Workplace Discrimination

Although work remains to be done, the expansion of protection from workplace discrimination based on sexual orientation stands as one of the significant accomplishments of the American lesbian and gay civil rights movement.

arts >> Jansson, Eugène Frederik

Eugène Jansson, sometimes described as Sweden's first gay artist, has only recently begun to receive the international attention that his accomplishments merit.


Johannson, Nicke. "Gay Stockholm." Stockholm: The Official Visitors Guide (May 1, 2005):

"History." The Swedish Youth Federation for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Rights (May 1, 2005):

"6 out of 10 Swedes back gay church marriage." The Local: Sweden's News in English (September 15, 2004)

Sizoo, Lysanne. "No More Trips to Finland for Lesbian Couples" The Local: Sweden's News in English (May 27, 2005):

"Sweden Legalises Gay Adoption." BBC News (June 6, 2002):

"The Swedish Association for HIV-Positive People."

"This is HomO." The Office of the Ombudsman against Discrimination on the Grounds of Sexual Orientation.


    Citation Information
    Author: Jernewall, Nadine M.  
    Entry Title: Stockholm  
    General Editor: Claude J. Summers  
    Publication Name: glbtq: An Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual,
Transgender, and Queer Culture
    Publication Date: 2005  
    Date Last Updated July 4, 2005  
    Web Address  
    Publisher glbtq, Inc.
1130 West Adams
Chicago, IL   60607
    Today's Date  
    Encyclopedia Copyright: © 2002-2006, glbtq, Inc.  
    Entry Copyright © 2005, glbtq, inc.  


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