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social sciences

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Waring, Marilyn (b. 1952)  
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Waring ridicules mainstream economic analyses that count oil spills and wars as contributors to economic growth, while regarding child-rearing and housekeeping as valueless. At the same time, however, she rejects "environmental accounting," which assigns cash values to mountains, wildlife, air, and water.

For Waring, the most essential elements of life cannot be reduced to a budget line. "I don't want to see the things I love," she says, "appearing in national income accounts, called valuable, along with nuclear bombs, nuclear power stations, toxic wastes, female sexual slavery, trade in drugs and everything else. This is the invitation that is being extended to us, and we have to stop it, right now."

Sponsor Message.

Waring's work is the subject of a 1995 film, Who's Counting? Marilyn Waring on Sex, Lies and Global Economics, directed by Terre Nash and produced by the National Film Board of Canada.

Waring left her goat farm in 2002 and moved back to the city, where she has continued to explore and publish her economic ideas, while teaching at various universities. She is a respected academic who has won fellowships from Harvard University and Rutgers University, worked as Senior Lecturer at the University of Waikato, and headed the Public Policy program at Auckland's Massey University. In 2006, she will begin working at the Institute of Public Policy at the Auckland University of Technology.

Waring has written many articles and books, including Three Masquerades: Essays on Equality, Work, and Hu(Man) Rights (1996) and In the Lifetime of a Goat: Writings 1984-2000 (2002).

She is a member of the Board of the Reserve Bank of New Zealand and has served as a consultant for such organizations as the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization and the United Nations Development Fund for Women and for a number of countries in South East Asia and the Pacific.

Waring also works for gay and lesbian rights. While fighting to legalize same-sex marriage in New Zealand, she has become an outspoken critic of civil unions, calling them discriminatory and a form of "separate but equal" oppression.

Tina Gianoulis

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Cavanaugh, Cathy. "Interview With Marilyn Waring." Aurora Online (October 2005):

Duder, Karen. "Waring, Marilyn." Who's Who in Contemporary Gay and Lesbian History: From World War II to the Present. Robert Aldrich and Garry Wotherspoon, eds. London: Routledge, 2001. 432-33.

Dullea, Georgia. "Amendment on Sexism Makes Gains At Conference." New York Times (July 28, 1980): B5.

Hughes, Lesley. "Add Women and Stir . . . ." Canadian Dimension 31.3 (May-June 1997): 18-21.

"If Women Counted." The Economist 313 (October 28, 1989): 98.

Mantilla, Karla. "If Women Counted: A New Feminist Economics."  off our backs 35 (January-February 2005): 47-49.

Morgan, Robin. "Marilyn Waring: New Zealand's Feisty M.P.P." Ms. 10 (December 1981): 71-75.

Morris, Holly. "Marilyn Waring: Pastoral Politico." Adventure Divas (2005):

Waring, Marilyn. Counting For Nothing: What Men Value and What Women are Worth. 1988. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1999.

Young, Audrey. "'Perverted Little Liar' Jibe Still Hurts." The New Zealand Herald (June 6, 2005):


    Citation Information
    Author: Gianoulis, Tina  
    Entry Title: Waring, Marilyn  
    General Editor: Claude J. Summers  
    Publication Name: glbtq: An Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual,
Transgender, and Queer Culture
    Publication Date: 2006  
    Date Last Updated April 20, 2006  
    Web Address  
    Publisher glbtq, Inc.
1130 West Adams
Chicago, IL   60607
    Today's Date  
    Encyclopedia Copyright: © 2002-2006, glbtq, Inc.  
    Entry Copyright © 2006 glbtq, Inc.  


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